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  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (31)
  • Animals
  • 1995-1999  (31)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Enantiomer resolution ; Chiral stationary phase ; Derivated cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new β-cyclodextrin derivatives, heptakis(6-O-isopropyldi-methylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(6-O-thexyldi-methylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and heptakis(6-O-cy-clohexyldimethyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (IPDE-β-CD, TXDE-β-CD, and CHDE-β-CD), were synthesized and the enan-tioselectivities of these three CD derivatives and heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TBDE-β-CD) were compared for GC separation of a range of chiral test com-pounds. In particular TXDE-β-CD showed much higher enentio-selectivity than TBDE-β-CD. Enentioselectivities of IPDE-β-CD and CHDE-β-CD are somewhat lower than that of TXDE-β-CD and CHDE-β-Cd are somewhat lower than that of TXDE-β-CD. These observations are indicative of significant effects of subtle changes in the structure of the 6-O-substituent on the enantioselec-tivity of the β-CD derivatives. The difference in enantioselectivities of the 6-O-substituted CD derivatives were explained in terms of relative contributions of the effects of hydrophobicity and steric hindrance of the substituent to the inclusion process. CHDE-β-CD showed the lowest enantioselectivity among the threederivatives. It is likely that the unfavorable steric hindrance of the bulky cyclo-hexyl group plays a greater role than the favorable hydrophobicity effect of the cyclohexyl group in the inclusion process in CHDE-β-CD. IPDE-β-CD showed lower selectivity than TXDE-β-CD and TBDE-β-CD. In the case of these CD derivatives having acyclic substituents the relative hydrophobicity of the substituent seems to be a dominant factor affecting the inclusion process. Isopropyl groups factor affecting the inclusion process. Isopropyl groups are less hydrophobic than thexyl and tert-butyl groups.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Enantiomer resolution ; Chiral stationary phases ; Derivatized cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new chiral selectors, 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-diethyl-a-cyclodextrin, 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-diethyl- and dipropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TBDE-α-CD, TBDE-β-CD, TBDP-β-CD) were synthesized and tested as chiral stationary phases in capillary gas chromatography. TBDE-β-CD in particular showed a high enan-tioselectivity for test chiral compounds due to good solubility in a polar polysiloxane (OV-1701). Enantioselectivity obtained with TBDE-β-CD was compared with that of 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TBDM-β-CD). Better enantiose-lectivity was obtained with TBDE-P-CD than with TBDM-β-CD for the test chiral compounds studied. This is probably due to greater effect of the increased hydrophobicity of TBDE-β-CD which favors inclusion of the analytes than the effect of increased steric hindrance. With TBDP-β-CD the less polar lactones are well separated due most likely to increased hydrophobicity of the propyl groups while the more polar are not well resolved. For TBDP-β-CD it is likely that the unfavorable steric hindrance is predominant over the favorable hydrophobicity of the propyl groups, thus hindering the formation of inclusion complexes of the alcohols with TBDP-β-CD. TBDE-α-CD was also a valuable chiral selector for the separation of small chiral molecules such as simple secondary alcohols and nitro-substituted alcohols.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: A,C- and A,D-bridged calix[6]arene ; stationary phase ; capillary gas chromatography ; geometric and positional isomer separation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A,C-Bridged (ACCX) and A,D-bridged isopropyldimethylsilylcalix[6]arene (ADCX) dissolved in OV-1701 were used as stationary phases in isothermal capillary gas chromatographic separation of some positional isomers. Retention factors and separation factors for the isomers were measured. The isomers investigated are well resolved on the two phases. Retention of all the solutes investigated is longer on ACCX than on ADCX. The longer retention on A,C-bridged calix[6]arene is probably due to extra inductive interactions of the solute molecule with the carbonyl moieties in the phase. Separation factors for closely eluting isomer pairs are similar on the two phases. This seems to indicate that the carbonyl moieties do not play an appreciable role in discriminating the isomer molecules on entering the cavity of the calixarene if the solute is retained by the inclusion process.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid chromatography ; Modifier addition ; Packed capillary columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new method to accurately deliver small amounts (0.5 to 20 mol%) of modifier into CO2 was used to study the effects of three different modifiers (methanol, water, and formic acid) in packed capillary column SFC. The method allows the use of different modifiers, with minimal instrument modification. The effects of the different modifiers at different concentrations on retention and peak shape are shown by analyzing a polarity test mixture and a sample of free fatty acids.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: liquid chromatography ; chiral separations ; chiral stationary phase ; separation of enantiomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chiral stationary phases ; pyrethroic acids ; enantiomer separation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; Reversed phase ; 4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole ; Phenolic derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: liquid chromatography ; chiral separation ; chiral recognition mechanism ; chiral stationary phase ; separation of enantiomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A chiral recognition mechanism which can rationalize the resolution of N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino amides on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) obtained from N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)leucine amide derivatives has been proposed on the basis of the chromatographic resolution behavior of various N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino acid derivatives and N-(various benzoyl)leucine N-propyl amides. The proposed chiral recognition mechanism utilizes two hydrogen bonding interactions between the CSP and the analyte and a π-π donor-acceptor interaction between the N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl) groups of the CSP and the analyte. From the chiral recognition mechanism proposed, it has been concluded that the resolution of π-acidic N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino acid derivatives on π-acidic CSPs derived from N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)leucine amide delivatives is not unusual, but is merely the extension of the resolution of the π-basic racemates on π-acidic CSPs. However, the chromatographic behavior of the resolution of N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)phenylglycine derivatives on CSPs derived from N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)leucine amide derivatives is different from that of the resolution of other N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino acid derivatives. To rationalize this exceptional behavior, a second chiral recognition mechanism which utilizes two hydrogen bonding interactions (which are different from those of the first chiral recognition mechanism) between the CSP and the analytes and a π-π donor-acceptor interaction between the N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl) group of the CSP and the phenyl group of the analytes has been proposed to compete with the first chiral recognition mechanism. In this instance, it has been proposed that the separation factors and the elution orders of the resolution of N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)phenylglycine derivatives are dependent on the balance of the two competing chiral recognition mechanisms.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Translational energy spectra have been obtained for single-electron capture by 8 keV Ar4+ ions in He, Ne and Ar. The spectra for He and Ne targets display eight well-resolved peaks, the majority of which correspond to capture involving a rearrangement of the electron core configuration. By contrast, the five channels observed in the spectrum for the Ar target are all associated with core-conserved electron-capture processes. One pronounced peak in the spectra for He and Ne cannot be explained on the basis of capture from the ground 3P or metastable 1D and 1S states of the Ar4+ ions, and appears to originate from capture by Ar4+ in the hitherto unidentified metastable 5S0-state at ∼ 7.5 eV above the ground state. All observed channels are spin-conserved.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: High-resolution translational energy spectroscopy is an effective means of obtaining detailed state-selective information, permitting systematic investigation of spin conservation in collisional processes. In this paper, we examine collisional excitation of one selected singlet (N2) and one non-singlet (O2) target by a variety of projectile ions, providing a kaleidoscope of assorted effects.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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