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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; menopausal status ; second primary neoplasms ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least six months after the initial diagnosis, but prior to 1992 (n=234). Controls were sampled randomly from the cohort, matched to cases on age, stage, and year of initial breast cancer diagnosis. Information on potential risk factors for second primary cancer was obtained through medical record abstractions and physician questionnaires. Women who were postmenopausal due to a bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., a surgical menopause) at initial breast cancer diagnosis had a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk compared with premenopausal women (matched odds ratio [mOR]=0.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.09–0.68), whereas no reduction in risk was noted among postmenopausal women who had had a natural menopause (mOR=0.90, CI=0.39–2.09). Among postmenopausal women, there was a suggestion of a lower risk associated with relatively high parity (2+). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (mOR=1.96, CI=1.22–5.15) and varied little by menopausal status. Having an initial tumor with a lobular component (c.f. a ductal histology) was not related strongly to risk (mOR=1.47, CI=0.79–2.74). The results of the present and earlier studies argue that we have limited ability to predict the occurrence of a contralateral breast tumor. Better predictors will be required before diagnostic and preventive interventions can be targeted to subgroups of patients with unilateral breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: China ; Hawaii ; Japan ; migrant studies ; the Philippines ; thyroid neoplasms ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared incidence rates of primary cancer of the thyroid among United States-born and foreign-born Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the US with rates among US-born Whites. Thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1973 and 1986 occurring among individuals 15 to 84 years of age residing in western Washington state, the San Francisco-Oakland (California) area, or the state of Hawaii were included in the analysis. Population estimates by age, gender, ethnicity, and country of birth were obtained for these areas from the US Bureau of the Census. Filipino women born in the Philippines had 3.2 (95 percent confidence interval=2.7–3.8) times the rate of thyroid cancer of US-born White women, while US-born Filipino women were not at any increased risk. Philippine-born Filipino men also had a relatively high rate of thyroid cancer (relative risk [RR]=2.6), more so than US-born Filipino men (RR=1.5). Among Japanese, risk of thyroid cancer varied by birthplace, but the direction of the association differed by gender and by histologic type of cancer. No clear association with birthplace was noted among Chinese men or women. These data suggest that persons residing in one or more regions from which Filipino-Americans migrated have been exposed to environmental influences that have increased their subsequent risk of thyroid cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Asian-Americans ; China ; Japan ; migrants ; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; Philippines ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the United States to obtain further clues about the etiology of the disease. The age, race, and birthplace of residents of Hawaii, San Francisco/Oakland (California), and western Washington who had received a diagnosis of NHL during the period 1973–86 were obtained from population-based cancer registries, and a special tabulation from the 1980 Census was used to estimate the number of person-years at risk for each category of resident. The incidence of NHL in each of the Asian groups examined was 35 to 85 percent that of US-born Whites. However, there was no consistent trend of increasing incidence with increasing generation of residence in any of the groups. In Asian-Americans, the risk of small cell lymphocytic and plasmacytoid lymphoma was 10 to 85 percent that of Whites, although no clear trends of risk with generation of residence in the US were observed. They also were at a reduced risk of follicular lymphoma, and in Chinese and Japanese persons, the risk was lower in first generation than in later generation migrants (Chinese: Asian-born relative risk [RR]=0.11, US-born, RR=0.84; Japanese: Asian-born, RR=0.15, US-born, RR 0.36). The risk of diffuse lymphoma was similar in Chinese-and Japanese-Americans and US-born Whites. We conclude that, with the exception of follicular lymphoma, the basis for the relatively low incidence of NHL in Asian-Americans does not lie in exposures or characteristics that differ between the migrants themselves and their descendants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Liver neoplasms ; incidence rates ; migrants ; Asian Americans ; Chinese Americans ; Japanese Americans ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The incidence of primary liver cancer in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino migrants to the United States and their descendants is compared with that of United States-born Whites. Incident liver cancer cases were ascertained between 1973 and 1986 from population-based cancer registries serving the San Francisco/Oakland (CA) metropolitan area, 13 counties of western Washington, and Hawaii. The population of these three areas, with regard to age, race, and country of birth, was estimated from a special tabulation of the 1980 US census. Rates of primary liver cancer were higher for men born in Asia than Asian men born in the US, who, in turn, had higher rates than did US Whites (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 26.5 and 9.8; Japanese, 16.5 and 6.6; Filipinos, 11.4 and 6.5; US Whites, 3.4). Among Asian American women, the trends were not as consistent (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 2.2 and 3.7; Japanese, 1.9 and 1.4; Filipino, 2.6 and 0; US Whites, 1.1). In general, liver cancer incidence among Asian Americans was lower than among residents of Asia. These findings are compatible with substantial variation among Asians in the prevalence of one or more etiologic factors for liver cancer, such as hepatitis-B infection and aflatoxin consumption, in relation to residence and place of birth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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