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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: entangled polymer solution ; double-step strain rate ; flow birefringence ; tube model ; segmental stretch ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Experiments measuring the orientation angle and birefringence in startup and double-step strain rate flows were conducted on a 3.0 wt % 8.42 × 106 molecular weight polystyrene solution in a Couette flow cell. A phase-modulated flow birefringence apparatus was used to noninvasively probe the sample. Upon startup from rest, the orientation angle undershoots its final steady-state value, as seen by earlier investigators. When the shear rate undergoes a step increase from one nonzero value to another, the amplitude of this undershoot is decreased. However, a more significant effect is a shorter time scale overshoot in the orientation angle that is highly counterintuitive in the sense that an increase of shear rate initially produces a rotation of chain segments away from the flow direction. Similarly, a step decrease in shear rate yields an initial transient rotation toward the flow direction. In both cases, the height of the peaks depends upon the magnitude of the shear rate jump, and the width of the peaks is a function of the final shear rate. The longer time transients in the startup and step increase experiments reflect an apparent change in the relaxation time for segment orientation, which we tentatively attribute to a combination of tube dilation and convective constraint release. The shorter time scale over- and undershoots in the orientation angle appear to be qualitatively explained by considering the differences in extension or contraction of segments along the polymer chain. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 265-280, 1998
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Nylon 66 films exhibiting form I melting behavior show the γ mechanical relaxation at -140°C. Samples which have form II melting behavior do not show this relaxation. The γ relaxation disappears when material having form I behavior is converted to material having form II behavior by annealing or by cold drawing. The form I and form II types of melting behavior are also found in poly(ethylene terephthalate); the interconversions and thermal behavior of the forms are analogous to the nylon 66 case. In poly(ethylene terephthalate), the β relaxation at -40 to -60°C is present only when form I melting behavior is found. Conversion to form II melting behavior by annealing or drawing (80°C) again causes the relaxation to disappear. No β relaxation was found in amorphous polymer. The γ dispersion in nylon 66 and the β dispersion in poly(ethylene terephthalate) can therefore be associated with the crystalline structure responsible for form I melting behavior. Form I melting behavior has been associated with foldedchain crystals based on previous work. It is therefore postulated that the γ dispersion in nylon 66 and the β dispersion in poly(ethylene terephthalate) are associated with motions in the chain folds. This assignment is not inconsistent with the change in the γ dispersion of nylon 66 with the number of backbone CH2 units, since these will affect the fold structure.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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