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  • Articles  (13)
  • 1995-1999  (8)
  • 1990-1994  (5)
  • Medicine  (13)
  • Psychology  (1)
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  • Articles  (13)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Key words sICAM-1 ; Lung cancer ; Liver metastasis ; Prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression correlates with tumour progression in patients with malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. To assess the value of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) for lung cancer patients, sICAM-1 was determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera from 147 patients with lung cancer, from 75 patients with benign lung diseases and from 108 healthy adults were investigated for sICAM-1 expression. Significant differences in sICAM-1 levels were detected in lung cancer patients (387 ± 176 ng/ml) and patients with benign lung diseases (365 ± 110 ng/ml) compared to the group of healthy adults (310 ± 90 ng/ml). There was no difference in sICAM-1 level among the subtypes of lung cancer. Advanced tumour stages and patients with progressive disease tended to be associated with higher sICAM-1 levels, the site of metastasis being relevant for the level attained. Patients with liver metastasis had the highest sICAM-1 levels (547 ± 295 ng/ml) compared to patients with cerebral metastasis (317.8 ± 92.2 ng/ml). An increase of sICAM-1 expression during the progression of the disease coincided with a poorer survival prognosis for the patients compared to patients with stable or falling sICAM-1 levels.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2102
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Filmloses Befunden ; PACS ; Teleradiologie ; Bildverteilung ; Key words Filmless reading ; PACS ; Teleradiology ; Digital image distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary In healthcare, cost effectiveness as well as the quality of examinations and procedures are subjected to quickly increasing expectations and demands: we like to demonstrate how the resulting challenges and problems can be met with implementation of modern information technology. Analysing the respective demands (pattern of quantities) and choosing the adequate technical solution/ technical approach, we found filmless reading and the usage of digital image distribution to communicate with referring physicians to be cost effective as well as of higher quality. Special attention should be paid to the rigorous maintenance of data security and access. Today’s information technology allows individual adjustment to the respective size and requirements of a radiological department or practice for filmless reading and digital image distribution. Working with the systems as a matter of routine and using all of the expanding technological possibilities, an important improvement of service and quality can be achieved. Amortisation will be obtained despite high investments, due to the subsequent savings in personal- and enterprise costs.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der Kostendruck sowie der Anspruch auf Leistung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen steigen ständig. Am Beispiel einer radiologischen Gemeinschaftspraxis zeigen wir auf, wie diesen Voraussetzungen mit Einsatz moderner Informationstechnologie begegnet werden kann. Nach Analyse des Mengengerüstes und Auswahl der adäquaten technischen Lösung, tragen filmloses Befunden und der Einsatz von digitalen Bildverteilungen an Zuweiser kosteneffektiv zur Qualitätssteigerung bei. Einer konsequenten Einhaltung der Datenschutzbestimmungen und einer Sicherstellung des authentifizierten Datenzugriffes sollte dabei ein Hauptaugenmerk zukommen. Mit Hilfe der vorhandenen Technologien können heute den individuellen Verhältnissen angepaßte Lösungen für digitales Befunden und digitale Bildverteilung erworben werden. Der konsequente Einsatz und die Ausnützung aller Möglichkeiten der Technologie leisten einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur verbesserten Versorgung und Qualitätssicherung. Hohen Anfangsinvestitionen stehen Einsparungen bei Personal- und Betriebskosten entgegen, so daß eine Amortisation zu erreichen ist.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6185
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Psychology , Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] TABLE 1 Vibrational parameters for silicon clusters Experimental Calculated Absolute frequency frequency deviation Symmetry Calculated Cluster (cm"1) (cm"1)* (cm"1) assignment intensityt Si4 345 337 8 Ag 1.0 440 B3g 0.5 470 463 7 A* 5.0 Si6J 252 209 43 B2g 1.0 300 298 2 A* 2.6 ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 360 (1992), S. 600-603 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Maternally derived Raf protein is required during embry-ogenesis for the response to activation of the torso receptor tyrosine kinase13. Strong loss-of-function raf mutations block cell proliferation11'12, and as anticipated, our attempts to examine the consequences of complete loss of raf function ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Assistierte Spontanatmung ; Entwöhnung von der Beatmung ; Atemarbeit ; Key words Assisted spontaneous breathing ; Weaning from mechanical ventilation ; Work of breathing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Study objective: To investigate whether automatic tube compensation (ATC) or conventional pressure support (PS) is suit- able to compensate for the work of breathing imposed by the breathing circuit without altering the breathing pattern. Methods: Breathing pattern and work of breathing were measured in healthy volunteers. After a 20 min period of quiet breathing through a mouth piece (control) the volunteers were breathing through a 8.0 mm ID endotracheal tube (ETT) with four different settings: CPAP at 0 mbar, ATC, PS 5 mbar, PS 10 mbar. Each mode was applied for a 20 min period. At the end of each period data from 10 consecutive breaths were analyzed and aver-aged. Tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (f), and minute ventilation (Ve) were determined from the stored gas flow tracings. Work of breathing was assessed as the pressure time product (PTP) calculated from the transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) using a combined esophageal and gastric balloon catheter. Results: During the control period the breathing pattern was as follows: VT=882±277 ml, f=13,7±5/min, Ve=11,5±4,2 L/min. Maximal Pdi was 9,2±5,4 mbar and PTP was 11,3±7,1 mbar×s. Breathing CPAP through the ETT resulted in a slight increase in Pdi (10,8±5,4 mbar) and PTP (14,8±10,4 mbar×s) with an unchanged breathing pattern. How-ever, for the same amount of unloading from respiratory workload ATC did not alter the breathing pattern, whereas PS 5 mbar and PS 10 mbar resulted in a clear increase in VT (1014±202 ml, 1336±305 ml, respectively). Conclusion: From the presented data in healthy volunteers it might be concluded that ATC and PS 5 mbar and 10 mbar are suitable modes for unloading the respiratory system from work imposed by the breathing circuit. ATC does not alter the breathing pattern in contrast to PS which results in an increased tidal volume. Therefore, the exact compensa-tion of the work imposed by the ETT during ATC seems to be advantageous over ATC to assess the actual breathing pattern.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fragestellung: Ist die automatische Tubuskompensation (ATC) oder die konventionelle inspiratorische Druckunterstützung (pressure support, PS) geeignet, die zusätzliche, durch den endotrachealen Tubus und das Beatmungsgerät entstehende, Atemarbeit zu kompensieren? Methodik: In dieser Untersuchung an freiwilligen gesunden Probanden wurden die Atemarbeit und das Atemmuster gemessen. Nach einer Kontrollperiode mit Atmung über ein Mundstück atmeten die Probanden durch einen 8,0 mm Endotrachealtubus mit fünf verschiedenen Einstellungen: Kontinuierlich positiver Atemwegsdruck (CPAP) von 0 mbar, ATC während Inspiration, PS 5 mbar, PS 10 mbar. Jeder Modus wurde 20 min angewendet, bevor die Messung der Daten als Mittelwert von 10 konsekutiven Atemzügen vorgenommen wurde. Das Atemzugvolumen (VT), die Atemfrequenz (f) und das resultierende Atemminutenvolumen (Ve) wurden aus den gespeicherten Gasflußkurven bestimmt. Die Atemarbeit wurde als transdiaphragmaler Druck (Pdi) mit Hilfe eines Doppelballonkatheters im Magen und Ösophagus gemessen. Hiervon wurde das Druck-Zeit-Produkt (PTP) als Integral über die Inspirationszeit abgeleitet. Ergebnisse: Während der Kontrollphase betrugen VT=882±277 ml, f=13,7±5,0/min, so daß ein Ve von 11,5±4,2 l/min resultierte. Der maximale Pdi betrug im Mittel 9,2±5,4 mbar, das PTP 11,3±7,1 mbar×s. Bei Atmung durch einen endotrachealen Tubus ergaben sich ein leichter Anstieg des Pdi (10,8±5,4 mbar) und des PTP (14,8±10,4 mbar×s) bei relativ unverändertem Atemmuster. Während ATC zu einer Entlastung der Atemarbeit führte, ohne das Atemmuster zu beeinträchtigen, resultierten PS 5 mbar und PS 10 mbar in einer deutlichen Zunahme des VT auf 1014±202 ml bzw. 1336±305 ml bei einer vergleichbaren Abnahme der Atemarbeit. Schlußfolgerungen: Bei Probanden können sowohl ATC als auch PS zur Kompensation zusätzlicher Atemarbeit eingesetzt werden. Während das Atemmuster bei Anwendung von ATC dem der Spontanatmung ohne Tubus gleicht, führt PS zu einer deutlichen Erhöhung des Atemzugvolumens. Durch die gezielte Wegnahme lediglich der zusätzlichen Atemarbeit scheint ATC das bessere Verfahren zur Abschätzung des spontanen Atemmusters zu sein.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Activated charcoal ; Sorbitol ; Paracetamol ; Diphenhydramine ; Codeine ; Adsorption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Due to its paramount adsorption capacity, activated charcoal is supposed to be the remedy of choice for binding a variety of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. Hence it is surprising — at least according to the advice of German textbooks — that activated charcoal is only recommended for administration after time-consuming treatments like induced emesis and gastric lavage. Particularly with infants at home, a ready-for-use suspension of activated charcoal would allow the early management of acute poisoning. In such cases, inactivation of the poison by adsorption could be particularly helpful, since the period after ingestion is usually short. The charcoal-sorbitol-suspension (30 g activated charcoal in 150 ml of 70% sorbitol) is a creamy preparation which is easy to drink, because density and viscosity prevent sedimentation. The prescription-free drugs can be dispensed by each pharmacist. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of sorbitol on the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal. To this end, adsorption isotherms were established in vitro and compared with results in volunteers to whom NAPAP, diphenhydramine or codeine was administered separately. These drugs are gaining increasing importance in medicinal toxicology since they are constituents of various analgesics and cold remedies. To determine absorption, the cumulative urinary excretion was estimated of the parent drugs and their main metabolites. Without charcoal the volunteers were dosed with 500 mg NAPAP, 50 mg diphenhydramine-HCl, and 50 mg codeine phosphate, respectively. When the charcoal-sorbitol-suspension was swallowed two min after ingestion of the tablett-slurry, the five-fold dose of each drug was administered. The charcoal-sorbitol-suspension significantly (p〈0.01) diminished systemic absorption of codeine to 12%, of diphenhydramine to 28% and of NAPAP to 44% (means, n=5). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the charcoal-sorbitol-suspension to inhibit drug absorption. In vitro, sorbitol at neutral and acidic pH reduced the maximal adsorbance capacity of charcoal mainly for codeine (by 72%), less for diphenhydramine (19%) and least for NA-PAP (14%). Hence it is obvious that in-vitro experiments hardly predict the efficacy in vivo. This discrepancy suggests that part of the drugs had been already absorbed before binding to charcoal. This assumption is underlined by one experiment when diphenhydramine and charcoal-sorbitol were taken together. In this case less than 2% of the drug was absorbed. The charcoal-sorbitol-suspension was generally well tolerated besides marked flatulence. Black stools appeared within 1–3 h, the laxative action persisted for about 8 hours. It is recommended to administer activated charcoal to acutely poisoned patients as soon as possible (children 1 g/kg). The only exceptions are obtunded patients or ingestion of caustics. This first aid measure should start immediately at home or at work (e.g. after advice by telephone), in the ambulance car, and in busy (lack of staff !) intensive care units. When charcoal is rather ineffective (alcohol, iron or lithium salts) or in case of very large quantities of the ingested poison, emesis and gastric lavage can be performed even after charcoal administration.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: DNA content ; Squamous cell carcinoma ; Cell line ; Protein synthesis ; Head and neck
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aneuploidy, as abnormal nuclear DNA content, is considered almost positive evidence of malignancy. In this study three diploid and three aneuploid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines were examined for DNA content by flow cytometry. The DNA indices of the SCC cell lines were found to range from 1.0 to 2.1. The mitotic activity of the diploid cell lines was 1.6 times higher and the cells were smaller than aneuploid cells. To find a molecular basis for these differences, the pattern of the de-novo synthesized proteins was analyzed by means of [35S]methionine incorporation, electrophoresis, and autoradiography. In all aneuploid SCC cell lines tested in this experiment, the increase of nuclear DNA content is associated with the synthesis of a novel protein with a molecular mass of approximate 55 kDa as well as with altered synthesis rates of two preexisting proteins (50 kDa and 100 kDa). For determination of the amino acid uptake in diploid and aneuploid cells, the accumulation of [35S]methionine was measured as a function of time by liquid scintillation counting. No significant difference was found in the uptake rate between diploid and aneuploid cells with the same protein content. However, discrepancies were revealed when equal numbers of cells with different DNA index were used, suggesting, that protein turnover is different in diploid and aneuploid SCC cells.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Inflammatory polyneuropathy ; Demyelination ; Cyclosporin A ; Plasma exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A patient with chronic relapsing inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was successfully treated with plasma exchanges and cyclosporin A (CsA). Dynamometric measurements of hand force during the time of CsA treatment showed a highly significant correlation between hand force and CsA blood levels. The largest influence of CsA on hand force occurred 11–13 days after CsA uptake.
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