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  • 1995-1999  (199)
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  • 1
    Call number: Z070:227
    Keywords: Architecture / Germany ; Architecture / Designs and plans
    Pages: 299 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9783923003785
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: pharmacodynamics modeling ; prednisolone ; corticosteroids ; natural killer cells ; cell trafficking
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: lipid vesicles ; nitrosourea ; medulloblastoma ; high-dose chemotherapy ; increased drug exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To reduce the systemic toxicity and prolong the systemic presence of l-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea (CCNU), a lipid-based drug carrier was designed and characterized. Methods. The degree of CCNU association with lipid vesicles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and l,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) (1:1, m/m) was characterized and the drug decomposition rates of lipid-drug complexes were monitored. Effects of lipid association on drug potency against medulloblastoma cells and total systemic drug exposure in rats were determined. Results. At a CCNU:lipid molar ratio greater than 1:5, more than 90% of the drug was associated with the lipid vesicles. In aqueous suspensions, lipid association significantly reduced the first-order drug decomposition rate. In addition, lipid-associated CCNU exhibited a 4-fold increase in drug sensitivity with medulloblastoma cells. IC50 values for CCNU admixed and encapsulated with lipid vesicles were 18 ± 4.9 and 14.0 ± 2.2 μM, respectively, compared to 83 ± 11.0 μM for free CCNU. When administered to rats, lipid-associated CCNU increased the AUC (area under the concentration-time curve) of CCNU by approximately 2-fold (20.46 ± 2.15 compared to 39.59 ±1.87 μg⋅min/ml), and the terminal half-life (t1/2β) by almost 9-fold (17 ± 9 compared to 147 ± 48 min) over free CCNU. Despite the increase in total systemic drug exposure, rats treated with lipid-associated CCNU exhibited a significantly lower frequency of acute neurotoxicity. Conclusions. These data indicate that CCNU associated with lipid vesicles may increase drug stability, potency, and systemic exposure in rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-3146
    Keywords: Proximale Tibiafraktur ; Osteosynthese ; Achsabweichung ; Proximal tibia fracture ; Osteosynthesis ; Axis deviation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Sixteen extraarticular proximal third tibia fractures have been treated operatively in the Unfallchirurgische Universitätsklinik Mainz, Germany, during the last 5 years. All fractures were located in the meta- or meta-/diaphyseal region not affecting the knee joint. A fibula fracture was seen in 13 of the patients. All fractures were classified according to the AO system. Four open and 12 closed fractures were documented. Timing of surgery depended on severity of soft tissue damage (average time after trauma 3 days). Six fractures were treated by intramedullary stabilization and 10 by plate osteosynthesis after open reduction. The average postoperative follow-up was 14 months. The average healing time was 14 weeks. There were 2 delayed and 1 nonunion. In 9 of all patients a malalignment in the fracture site occurred, in 6 of them with more than 5° of angulation in at least 1 plane. The results after operative treatment of proximal tibia fractures are not optimal when analyzing fracture malalignment, none of the used operative technique showed significant advantages.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung In den letzten fünf Jahren wurden 16 extraartikuläre Frakturen der proximalen Tibia in der Unfallchirurgischen Universitätsklinik Mainz operativ versorgt. Es handelte sich dabei um proximale metaphysäre und meta-/diaphysäre Verletzungen ohne Beteiligung des Kniegelenkes. Eine begleitende Fraktur der Fibula lag bei 13 Patienten vor. Die Frakturen wurden nach dem AO-System klassifiziert. Es handelte sich um vier offene und zwölf geschlossene Frakturen. Abhängig von der Weichteilsituation wurde der Zeitpunkt der operativen Versorgung (im Mittel drei Tage posttraumatisch) gewählt. Sechs Frakturen wurden mit einer intramedullären Osteosynthese und zehn Frakturen mittels Plattenosteosynthese nach offener Reposition stabilisiert. Die mittlere postoperative Beobachtungsdauer betrug 14 Monate, die durchschnittliche Heilungszeit 14 Wochen. Es kam zu zwei verzögerten Bowie einer ausbleibenden Knochenheilung. In insgesamt neun Fällen traten Fehlstellungen im Bereich der Fraktur auf, hiervon sechs mit einer Abweichung von 〉 5° in mindestens einer Ebene. Die operativen Ergebnisse sind somit bezüglich der Achsgenauigkeit in einem Drittel der hier dokumentierten Fälle als nicht optimal zu werten, wobei keine der angewandten Operationstechniken wesentliche Vorteile geboten hat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-3146
    Keywords: Steifigkeit ; Biegung ; Torsion ; Nagel ; Oberarm ; UHN ; Insertionsloch ; Stiffness ; Bending ; Torsion ; Humerus ; Nail ; UHN ; Insertion hole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The retrograde approach to the humeral shaft for interlocked nailing is a less invasive alternative compared to the antegrade approach, since it is extraarticular and does not damage the shoulder or elbow. Distal dorsal drilling of an insertion hole, 1 cm large and 2 cm long, is necessary. Critics fear a significant weakening of shaft stability. This biomechanical study investigates the effects of the insertion hole on the reduction of bone stability concerning bending and torsional forces, as well as the question, whether these bones fracture already with less torsional load. To evaluate bending and torsional stiffnesses, 12 pairs of cadaveric humeri with and without standardized insertion hole have been randomized and tested in material testing machines. In anterior-posterior, as well as medio-lateral direction stiffness under 4-point bending showed no significant difference with or without the insertion hole. Under physiological torsional loading with moments of 4 Nm, 6 Nm and 8 Nm there was no significant difference found with or without the insertion hole either. Augmenting the torque, humeri with insertion hole fracture earlier, those without hole tolerate higher twisting angles. Under physiological bending and torsional loading the retrograde approach does not offer a significantly weaker situation to the humerus concerning stability. Physiotherapeutic exercises with larger torque should be restricted until bone healing.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der retrograde Zugang zur Verriegelungsnagelung am Humerusschaft stellt eine schonendere Alternative zum antegraden Zugang dar, da er extraarticulär erfolgt und somit weder Schulter- noch Ellenbogengelenk wesentlich beeinträchtigt. Die distal-dorsale Bohrung eines 2 cm langen und 1 cm breiten Insertionsloches wird erforderlich. Kritiker fürchten dadurch eine deutliche Schwächung der Schaftstabilität. In dieser biomechanischen Studie sollte untersucht werden, inwieweit es durch Ausfräsen eines Insertionsloches zu einer bedeutsamen Reduzierung der Stabilität des Knochens hinsichtlich Biege- und Torsionskräften kommt und ob der Knochen bei geringer Krafteinwirkung frakturiert. Zur Bewertung von Biege- und Torsionssteifigkeit des Humerus mit und ohne Bohrung eines distalen Insertionsloches wurden zwölf Humeruspaare in Materialprüfungsmaschinen biomechanisch verglichen. Randomisiert wurde zuvor jeweils im linken oder rechten Humerus an definierten Stelle analog zum operativen Vorgehen das 2 cm lange und 1 cm breite Insertionsloch angelegt. In anterior-posteriorer und in medio-lateraler Richtung unter Vier-Punkte-Biegung fanden sich keine signifikanten Unterschiede der Steifigkeiten mit oder ohne Insertionsloch. Die Torsionssteifigkeiten unter Belastungen mit Torsionsmomenten von 4 Nm, 6 Nm, 8 Nm und im linearen Bereich zeigten mit oder ohne Insertionsloch keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Wurde hingegen das Torsionsmoment weiter erhöht, ertrug der unversehrte Humerus im Paarvergleich signifikant höhere Torsionsmomente, bis er unter Torsion frakturierte. Damit verbunden war die Tatsache, daß letztgenannte Humeri erst bei deutlich höheren Auslenkungswinkeln frakturierten. Unter physiologischer Belastung stellt der gelenkschonendere retrograde Zugang zum Humerusschaft mit seinem distal-dorsalen Insertionsloch somit keine wesentliche Schwächung des Humerus dar. Starke Rotationsbeanspruchungen des mit Nagel versorgten Humerus sollten allerdings erst nach Konsolidierung erfolgen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1248-9204
    Keywords: Inguinal hernia ; Tension-free hernioplasty ; Mesh plug ; Local anesthesia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the postoperative pain and disability after treatment of inguinal hernia by the plug technique. Postoperative pain, main organic functions, mobility, return to normal activities and absence from work were prospectively assessed in 118 consecutive patients. Only 3 benign postoperative complications (2.5%) occurred. The mean postoperative pain as assessed by visual analogue scale was 20.3 ± 15.1 mm/100. The mean duration of analgesic consumption was 2.7 ± 1.6 days and the mean total number of capsules was 7.1 ± 4.7. The percentages of patients capable of eating lunch the day of operation, passing urine, walking and bending forward without difficulty 6 hours after operation were 97.5,97.4, 97.5 and 85.6 respectively. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 1.2 ± 0.6 days. The mean times of first outdoor walking, return to normal activities and return to work were 1.5 ± 1, 3.6 ± 2.2 and 15.2 ± 8.9 days respectively. These results show that the plug technique provides a low complication rate, a low level of pain, and allows early resumption of full activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Shoulder ; Magnetic Resonance imaging ; Tomography ; X Ray computed ; Arthrography ; Labrum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ability to detect and categorize SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior) lesions of the scapular labrum is of practical importance to the orthopedic surgeon and the radiologist. The aim of this study, performed on cadaveric shoulders, was to determine whether CT arthrography or MR arthrography is able to show normal anatomical variation of the glenoid labrum and detect labral abnormalities. CT arthrography, MR arthrography followed by anatomical dissection were performed on twenty three fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders and analysed by a radiologist and two orthopaedic surgeons. As Gadolinium intra-articular injection is not allowed in France, we used an iodinated contrast media for both MR arthrography and CT arthrography. In this study, the sensitivity of MR arthrography seemed higher than CT arthrography (respectively 4 and 3 labral lesions diagnosed out of five), although no significant statistical conclusions can be made due to the small number of cases. In conclusion, under such specific conditions, MR arthrography seems to be the method of choice for the detection and classification of labral lesions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Shoulder ; Magnetic Resonance imaging ; Tomography ; X Ray computed ; Arthrography ; Labrum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La possibilité de détecter et de classer les lésions du bourrelet supérieur de la cavité glénoïdale de la scapula (SLAP lesions: Superior Bourrelet Anterior to Posterior) est une nécessité pour le radiologue et l'orthopédiste confrontés à des patients présentant des douleurs de l'épaule. Le but de cette étude réalisée sur des épaules cadavériques, était de déterminer les valeurs respectives de l'arthro-scanner et de l'arthro-IRM dans la détection des variations anatomiques normales et des anomalies pathologiques du bourrelet glénoïdal supérieur. Un arthro-scanner, une arthro-IRM, puis une dissection anatomique ont été réalisées sur 23 épaules fraîches et les résultats de ces examens ont été analysés par un radiologue et deux chirurgiens orthopédistes. L'injection intra-articulaire de gadolinium n'étant actuellement pas autorisée en France, un produit de contraste iodé à été utilisé pour l'arthro-scanner et l'arthro-IRM. Dans cette étude, la sensibilité de l'arthro-IRM semblait meilleure que celle de l'arthro-scanner (respectivement 4 et 3 lésions diagnostiquées sur 5), bien que ce résultat ne soit pas statistiquement significatif compte tenu du petit nombre de cas. En conclusion, dans les conditions spécifiques de notre étude, l'arthro-IRM semble être la méthode de choix pour la détection et la classification des lésions du bourrelet glénoïdal supérieur.
    Notes: Summary The ability to detect and categorize SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior) lesions of the scapular labrum is of practical importance to the orthopedic surgeon and the radiologist. The aim of this study, performed on cadaveric shoulders, was to determine whether CT arthrography or MR arthrography is able to show normal anatomical variation of the glenoid labrum and detect labral abnormalities. CT arthrography, MR arthrography followed by anatomical dissection were performed on twenty three fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders and analysed by a radiologist and two orthopaedic surgeons. As Gadolinium intra-articular injection is not allowed in France, we used an iodinated contrast media for both MR arthrography and CT arthrography. In this study, the sensitivity of MR arthrography seemed higher than CT arthrography (respectively 4 and 3 labral lesions diagnosed out of five), although no significant statistical conclusions can be made due to the small number of cases. In conclusion, under such specific conditions, MR arthrography seems to be the method of choice for the detection and classification of labral lesions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusion Dans des conditions d'examen optimales (épaules cadavériques avec coupes axiales et coronales), le diagnostic des lésions du bourrelet glénoïdal supérieur peut être obtenu par l'arthro-scanner ou l'arthro-IRM. Toutefois, pour être fiable, l'arthro-scanner nécessite la réalisation de coupes coronales. L'arthro-IRM, qui permet l'acquisition de coupes axiales et coronales avec un contraste et une résolution élevés, est probablement la méthode de choix pour le diagnostic de ces lésions du bourrelet supérieur.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Machine learning 35 (1999), S. 193-205 
    ISSN: 0885-6125
    Keywords: universals portfolios ; constant-rebalanced portfolios ; regret bounds ; competitive analysis ; transaction costs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A constant rebalanced portfolio is an investment strategy which keeps the same distribution of wealth among a set of stocks from period to period. Recently there has been work on on-line investment strategies that are competitive with the best constant rebalanced portfolio determined in hindsight (Cover, 1991, 1996; Helmbold et al., 1996; Cover & Ordentlich, 1996a, 1996b; Ordentlich & Cover, 1996). For the universal algorithm of Cover (Cover, 1991),we provide a simple analysis which naturallyextends to the case of a fixed percentage transaction cost (commission ), answering a question raised in (Cover, 1991; Helmbold et al., 1996; Cover & Ordentlich, 1996a, 1996b; Ordentlich & Cover, 1996; Cover, 1996). In addition, we present a simple randomized implementation that is significantly faster in practice. We conclude by explaining how these algorithms can be applied to other problems, such as combining the predictions of statistical language models, where the resulting guarantees are more striking.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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