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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Omeprazole ; CYP2C19
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: This pharmacogenetic study was aimed at studying the pattern of oxidation of omeprazole in a Turkish population and testing whether omeprazole metabolism cosegregates with the genetically determined metabolism of mephenytoin and proguanil in Turkish subjects. Methods: The hydroxylation of omeprazole was measured in 116 unrelated healthy Turkish subjects after administration of a single oral dose of omeprazole (20 mg), using the ratio of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomeprazole in plasma 3 h after dosing. To 31 subjects, who were phenotyped with omeprazole, mephenytoin (100 mg, p.o.) or proguanil (200 mg, p.o.) were administered at least 1 week apart. The S/R ratio of mephenytoin and the ratio of proguanil to cycloguanil were determined from an 8-h urine collection. Results: Based on the distribution of the log (omeprazole/hydroxyomeprazole) values and using the antimode value of 0.8, the frequency of poor metabolizers of omeprazole was estimated to be 7.7% (95% confidence interval 3–18%) which was similar to that in the other Caucasian populations (P = 0.54, Fisher's exact test). Three poor metabolizers of omeprazole were also classified as poor metabolizers of both mephenytoin and proguanil and no misclassification occurred with three phenotyping methods. All three methods separated poor or extensive metabolizer phenotypes with complete concordance. The ratio of omeprazole to hydroxyomeprazole correlated with the S/R ratio of mephenytoin and the ratio of proguanil to cycloguanil. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that the oxidative metabolism of three different drugs may be catalyzed by the same cytochrome P450 enzyme.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Cytochrome P450 ; Systemic lupus erythematosus ; Debrisoquine and genetic polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To determine whether patients with idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with impaired CYP2D6 activity and to gain insight into whether there is an association between particular CYP2D6 genotypes and susceptibility to SLE, and whether CYP2D6 polymorphism is linked to any specific clinical features of SLE. Methods: Debrisoquine sulfate (10 mg p.o.) was given to 159 healthy volunteers and 39 idiopathic SLE patients. Genotypic assay was carried out in 80 healthy volunteers and 32 patients. A 10-ml blood sample was drawn for genotypic assay. Debrisoquine and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine were determined in 8-h urine samples. Blood samples were analysed for the presence of mutations in the CYP2D6 gene, by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 alleles. Results: The metabolic ratio of debrisoquine to 4-hydroxydebrisoquine ranged from 0.01 to 86.98 in healthy subjects and from 0.02 to 96 in SLE patients. We observed the poor metabolizer(PM) debrisoquine phenotype in three of 39 patients with idiopathic SLE (7.6%) and five of 159 healthy subjects (3.1%). There was no significant difference in the frequency of PM phenotypes between idiopathic SLE and healthy subjects (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.19). No significant difference in the distribution of overall genotypes and allele frequencies were observed between the two groups. No significant relationships were found between specific clinical features and the overall genotype. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that CYP2D6 activity is not impaired in SLE and that there is no association between SLE and phenotypic CYP2D6 status. The results also showed that there was no difference in the frequency of CYP2D6A and CYP2D6B alleles between controls and patients with SLE.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Bone bruises ; Ankle sprain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Although bone bruises have been well described in the knee joint, little is known about their presence in the ankle joint. The present study attempted to document the association of bone bruises with lateral ankle sprains. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained from 60 consecutive patients with lateral ankle sprains between April 1994 and June 1995. There were 29 men and 31 women, aged on average 25 years (range 12–68 years). All of the patients presented within 3 weeks of the sprain. MRI examinations were done within 3 weeks of the injury in 15, after 3–6 weeks in 21, and after 6–8 weeks in 24 cases. There were 28 first-time sprains, while 32 patients had suffered one or more sprains before the most recent one. Plain radiographs showed no evidence of osseous abnormality. Following the conventional MRI examination, magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) was done by injecting 2 mM of gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) into the joint under fluoroscopic control, and the same images were obtained again to search for ligamentous lesions. A total of 11 bone bruises were detected in 10 ankles. In this group of patients, there were 5 men and 5 women aged on average 27 years (range 12–50 years). Four MRI examinations were done within 3 weeks, while six were done 3–6 weeks after the injury. One ankle which had suffered one previous sprain and complete ruptures of anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) had two lesions (talus and navicula). In another recurrent case with complete ATFL and CFL ruptures, the lesion was found in the calcaneus. The remaining eight lesions were in the talus in eight ankles. The ligamentous lesions in these ankles included three complete ATFL and CFL ruptures, and four isolated ATFL ruptures; in one ankle there were no ligamentous lesions. The location of talar bruises was medial in six and lateral in three ankles. The incidence of bone bruises associated with isolated ATFL lesions was 16% (4/25). With combined ATFL and CFL lesions the incidence was 50% (5/10). The incidence of ankles with bone bruises and first-time and recurrent sprains was 7% (2/28) and 25% (8/32), respectively. The occurrence of bone bruises should be kept in mind following ankle sprains. Their clinical significance in the long term remains to be determined.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The early and long-term results of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in different anatomical locations were evaluated in 14 patients with Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans). During a 10-year period, 2160 patients with peripheral vascular disease were treated and, in 258, the diagnosis of Buerger's disease was made. Fourteen of these 258 patients underwent revascularization with PTFE grafts. In a follow-up period, up to 8 years patency rates were as follows: aorto/ilofemoral bypass 80%, femoropopliteal bypass 40%, femorocrural bypass 50% with a cumulative patency rate of 57.1%, and limb salvage rate of 88.9%. Because of the diverse nature and small number of the operations, the numerical results are not amenable to statistical analysis, but 88.9% limb salvage rate is satisfying in Buerger's disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of PTFE grafts in Buerger's disease and it validates limb salvage even below the inguinal ligament.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Midazolam can produce antinociceptive effects when used via intrathecal or epidural routes. Neurotoxicity studies are scanty especially for neonates. The aim of this study was to carry out electron microscopic (EM) examinations in the neonatal rabbit to determine the histological effects of epidural midazolam on spinal cord. Twenty white New Zealand neonatal rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups receiving single dose of 0.9% saline (Group I; Control, n=4), 0.9% saline titrated to pH=3.9 by addition of hydrochloric acid (Group II; n=6), midazolam 250 μg·kg−1 (Group III; n=12) epidurally. Half of each group were sacrificed on the second day and the remainder on the seventh day and spinal cord sections were evaluated by EM. Control group displayed normal histology on grids. Group II and II showed a variable degree of neurotoxic effects such as degeneration of vacuoles, cytoplasm and neurofilaments, disruption of myelin sheaths, lysis of cell membranes, perivascular oedema, pyknosis of nuclei. The toxic effects of acidic saline and midazolam are similar, in view of these results the epidural use of acidic midazolam (commercially available preparations) in neonates should be avoided.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Accelerated storage tests were carried out for accumulation of 5-hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) and brown pigment formation (BPF) in the model systems containing more than one sugar and amino acid. In these tests, the effects of temperature and amino acid type were investigated at pH 3.5. In the model systems with glutamine or arginine, the accumulation of HMF and BPF were higher than the model systems containing proline at 55, 65 and 75C. The presence of more than one amino acid in the model caused an additive increase in HMF accumulation and BPF. The effect of temperature on both HMF accumulation and BPF were significant (P 〈 0.05). Both HMF accumulation and BPF were affected significantly (P 〈 0.05) by the addition of amino acid(s) into sugar solution.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7322
    Keywords: tumor necrosis factor-α ; tumor necrosis factor receptors ; cytokines ; heart failure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The basic mechanisms that are responsible for the development and progression of congestive heart failure are not known. Although clinicians have traditionally viewed heart failure as a hemodynamic disorder related to left ventricular pump dysfunction, one of the more recent concepts that has emerged is that the development and progression of heart failure is attributable, at least in part, to the overexpression of biologically active molecules that can contribute both to patient symptomatology as well as to disease progression. In this regard, one of the more recent interesting and intriguing observations in clinical heart failure research is the finding that a proinflammatory cytokine, termed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is expressed in patients with heart failure. Accordingly, the focus of the present brief review is to summarize recent clinical and experimental observations that implicate the elaboration of TNF-α and TNF receptors in the progression of human heart failure.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1468-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Anaesthesia 54 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We assessed the cardiorespiratory effects of laparoscopic procedures in 27 infants aged between 36 and 365 days. Infants were monitored and anaesthetised in a standardised manner. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide and oxygen saturation were recorded, and blood gases were measured at 5 min after intubation, 15 and 30 min after carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, 5 min after desufflation and after extubation. The pH, Pao2, base excess, Sao2 and Spo2 decreased, and Pco2 increased by insufflation of carbon dioxide intraperitoneally, and improved following deflation. Changes in pH and Pao2 during the study were statistically significant (p 〈 0.0001). The increase in Paco2 30 min after pneumoperitoneum was statistically significant when compared with initial values. Transient arrhythmias were observed in 10 infants 1 min after pneumoperitoneum. There were no statistically significant alterations in heart rate and systolic blood pressure.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effect of composition on mullite formation was investigated using submicrometer composite particles that consisted of α-alumina cores and amorphous silica coatings. Powders with varying alumina/silica ratios were prepared by varying the thickness of the silica coating. The mullitization behavior was monitored using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results were consistent with previous studies that indicated that mullite forms initially by nucleation and growth within the siliceous phase, but also that chemical interdiffusion within the mullite grains is required to complete the reaction. The reaction rate in both stages was affected by the alumina/silica ratio. Available evidence has indicated that the first stage of the reaction is controlled by the dissolution of alumina in the siliceous phase. Results for the second stage suggested that alumina diffuses more rapidly through mullite than silica.
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