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  • 1995-1999  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: p 〈 0.003). The adjunct group had more preoperative renal insufficiency (p 〈 0.05), an established risk factor for neurologic deficit (odds ratio = 2.2 in published studies). All other risk factors for neurologic deficit occurred with comparable frequency in both groups. We conclude that the introduction of adjuncts has dramatically reduced the neurologic risk associated with type I thoracoabdominal or total descending thoracic aortic repair. Previously considered high risk for neurologic complications, these aneurysms can now be reclassified as low risk in surgery accompanied by adjuncts. Future investigations will focus on type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm as the major source of neurologic morbidity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; physical activity ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have used data from a large population-based case-control study inthe United States to evaluate the effect of occupational physical activity onbreast cancer risk. Women diagnosed with breast cancer identified from fourstate cancer registries, and controls randomly selected from lists oflicensed drivers or Medicare beneficiaries, were interviewed by telephone forinformation on usual occupation and other factors. We classified usualoccupation into one of four categories of physical activity. After excludingsubjects for whom a strength rating could not be assigned, we had a finalsample size of 4,863 cases and 6,783 controls. Using conditional logisticregression models, we calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 percentconfidence intervals (CI) for occupations having light, medium, and heavyactivity compared with sedentary ones. Women with heavy-activity occupationshad a lower risk of breast cancer than women with sedentary jobs (OR = 0.82,CI = 0.63-1.08), as di d women with jobs with medium activity (OR = 0.86, CI= 0.77-0.97) or light activity (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.84-1.01). There was asignificant decreasing trend in the ORs from sedentary to heavy work (P =0.007). Although limited by exposure misclassification, these data areconsistent with the hypothesis that physical activity reduces the risk ofbreast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Styrene ; oxidation ; silent discharge ; plasma ; dielectric barrier
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract A silent discharge plasma reactor has been developed to study the oxidation of styrene vapor in argon/oxygen mixtures. A number of analytical techniques were employed to determine the destruction efficiency and to characterize the intermediate products. The destruction efficiency was measured as a function of initial styrene concentration, temperature, and energy density of the plasma. The formation of solid products was observed in most experiments. At low temperature (100°C), the solid deposit was polymeric in nature, while at high temperature (300°C) the solid appeared to be amorphous carbon. A combination of high temperature and high energy density resulted in high destruction efficiency and minimal production of solid films. The destruction efficiency vs. energy density is shown to be more complex than a simple model predicting exponential behavior. Several reasons for the discrepancy are suggested. The “e-folding” energy density for the destruction of styrene is compared to literature values for other organic compounds, measured using similar types of plasma reactors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 82 (1997), S. 6273-6280 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This article presents results on the surface etching of a Novolak-type polymer (Shipley, SPR2) on Si wafers using dielectric barrier discharges in oxygen at high pressures and room temperature. The etching depth is measured by mechanical profilometry as a function of gap spacing and gas pressure. Figures of merit are generated allowing comparison with conventional plasma surface treatment, as etch rate per power density coupled onto the sample surface (nm J−1 cm2), or coupled into the gas volume (nm J−1 cm3). Energy-density specific etch rates were measured as a function of the gap spacing (d) and the total oxygen gas pressure (p), as well as a function of the product of pd in the gas pressure range of 50–1500 mbar and of the gap spacing range of 1–20 mm. At a constant gap spacing and pressure, the removal rate is a linear function of the applied power density. The highest achieved etching rate per surface energy density is 2.2 nm J−1 cm2 at 730 mbar and 1 mm (0.2 nm J−1 cm3) and the highest etching rate per volumetric energy density is 0.85 nm J−1 cm3 at 290 mbar and 7 mm (0.87 nm J−1 cm2). The surface of the etched photoresist is characterized using mechanical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained in this work suggest that dielectric barrier discharges can be an efficient, alternative plasma source for general surface processing, because they can provide nonthermal discharges also near atmospheric pressures and thereby eliminate the need of costly vacuum systems. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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