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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Broadband ultrasound attenuation – Quantitative ultrasound – Speed of sound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of bone is a strong predictor of hip fractures and is currently an FDA-approved tool to identify women at risk of osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the lifestyle and genetic correlates of QUS in women. This study investigated the cross-sectional associates of several lifestyle, demographic and genetic factors with calcaneal QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)) in 393 women aged 45–53 years. Leisure-time and historical physical activity, dietary calcium and protein, body composition, vitamin D receptor genotypes, menopause status, other health behaviors, calcaneal QUS parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed at a single clinic visit. Lean mass, recent physical activity and African-American race were the strongest correlates of SOS whereas dietary protein, calcium and recent physical activity were the strongest correlates of BUA. These predictors explained 13% and 6% of the variance in SOS and BUA, respectively. Smoking, alcohol intake, education, hormone replacement therapy, calcium and vitamin D supplements, historical physical activity and vitamin D receptor genotypes were not significantly associated with BUA or SOS. Lean body mass and premenopausal status were the strongest correlates of lumbar BMD whereas lean body mass, physical activity, African-American race and body mass index were significantly related to femoral neck BMD. Physical activity remained predictive of SOS after controlling for lumbar BMD. The spectrum and magnitude of risk factors for SOS and BUA, including lean body mass, physical activity, race, protein and calcium intake, parallel previously observed predictors of BMD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Genetics — Osteoporosis — Quantitative ultrasound — Alpha-2-HS glycoprotein — Polymorphism.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) is an independent predictor of hip and vertebral fractures. BUA is under genetic control, but the specific genes contributing to BUA are not well defined. We examined the relationship between genetic variation in α2HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), an abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix, and calcaneal BUA. Genetic polymorphism in AHSG was determined in 222 Caucasian women (age 66–92) enrolled in the Pittsburgh Study of Osteoporotic Fractures clinical center by isoelectric focusing of serum samples. Calcaneal BUA and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured on the same foot with a Walker Sonix UBA 575+ and single X-ray absorptiometry. Hip and spine BMD were determined with a Hologic QDR-1000 densitometer using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. AHSG polymorphism was not significantly related to hip, lumbar spine, or calcaneal BMD. Compared with the homozygous AHSG*2 women, calcaneal BUA was 13% lower in heterozygous (P 〈 0.05) and 16% lower in homozygous AHSG*1 women (P 〈 0.05). This relationship persisted after controlling for age, weight, height, walks for exercise, and calcaneal BMD. Current and self-reported height were also lowest in homozygous AHSG*1 women, intermediate in heterozygous women, and highest among homozygous AHSG*2 subjects. These results suggest that the AHSG polymorphism may contribute to the genetic influence on calcaneal BUA and stature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone quality ; Broadband ultrasound attenuation ; Epidemiology ; Osteoporosis ; Quantitative ultrasound ; Speed of sound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure of bone which has been used in research settings for the prediction of osteoporosis. This review summarizes the current status of the epidemiology of QUS analysis, including its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD), risk of osteoporotic fracture and risk factors for osteoporosis. Although only moderately correlated with BMD, QUS appears to be as strong a predictor of osteoporotic fracture as BMD and may predict fracture independent of BMD. Risk factors for low QUS, including age, menopause, body composition and physical inactivity, seem to parallel those of low BMD. More longitudinal research is needed to confirm the clinical utility of QUS and more experimental and population-based studies are needed to determine whether the etiology of low QUS values is different from that of low bone mass.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:African-Americans – Bone mineral density – Genetics – Osteoporosis – Vitamin D receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: A polymorphism at the first of two potential translation initiation codons in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene defined by the FokI restriction endonuclease has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) among Caucasian, Asian, and Mexican-American women. We tested the hypothesis that the FokI polymorphism is related to markers of osteoporotic risk in 104 community-dwelling African-American women aged 65 years and older. Six percent of the African-American women had the ff genotype, 32% were heterozygous, and 63% had the FF genotype. FokI genotype frequencies did not differ from Hardy–Weinberg expectations. Hip and calcaneal BMD, calcaneal ultrasound attenuation and hip geometry from pelvic radiographs did not differ significantly by FokI genotypes or between women with and without the rare FokI allele. There was also no association between the FokI polymorphism and biochemical markers of bone turnover or fractional calcium absorption. We conclude that the VDR start codon polymorphism does not have a major influence on osteoporotic risk in older African-American women.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have identified a highly informative dinucleotide repeat in the 5′-flanking region of the human high mobility group I-C (HMGI-C) gene. This polymorphism consists of 18–37 copies of a (CT) repeat with an observed heterozygosity of 82–83% in African Americans and Caucasians. Linkage analysis in CEPH pedigrees localized the HMGI-C gene to chromosome region 12q13–15 with no recombination observed between HMCI-C and markers D12S102 and D12S8.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between variation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene region and interindividual variation in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in a sample representative of the adult population of Rochester, Minn. (217 females and 187 males aged 26 to 63). This relationship was analyzed by estimating the average excesses of alleles of the LDLR gene defined using RFLP markers both singly and simultaneously. We also used a cladistic approach to illustrate the consequences of incorporating evolutionary information into the analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships. Although results from both approaches supported the inference that common variation in the LDLR gene region associates with small effects on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels, only the cladistic approach provides direction for further work aimed at identifying the functional DNA sequence variations responsible for the observed associations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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