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  • 1
    ISSN: 1349-9432
    Keywords: optical CT ; reconstruction of CT image ; depolarization of light ; diffused light ; phase modulation ; biological tissue ; scattering medium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A method utilizing light polarization was applied to take the projection data of absorbers in a highly scattering medium. The floor level of the projection data due to diffused light was significantly suppressed by detection of photons which preserved initial polarization. An optical computed tomgraphy image was reconstructed from the projection data taken by this method and exhibited higher spatial resolution than the image reconstructed from the projection data by conventional method.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Glycogen ; Glycogen phosphorylase ; Histochemistry ; Immunohistochemistry ; Human embryo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To elucidate the role of glycogen in the epithelium of developing digestive organs, we investigated the appearance of glycogen and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in these organs. We studied 64 externally normal human embryos at Carnegie stages 13–23 (5.1–28.0 mm in crown-ramp length, 4–8 weeks of gestation) by histocytochemical staining for glycogen and immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against two isoenzymes of GP: brain-type (BGP) and mucle-brain-type (MBGP) GP. At stage 13, glycogen appeared in the epithelium of the digestive tract and the parenchyma of the pancreas. As development advanced, glycogen granules increased in number and size in these tissues, and they became evenly distributed in the epithelium of the digestive tract as either single particles or aggregates, as deduced by electron microscopy at late embryonic stages. Immunoreactivity specific both for BGP and for MBGP was detected in the digestive tract and the pancreas from stage 13. As development advanced, both BGP- and MBGP-immunoreactive cells increased in number and in immunoreactivity, and the number of MBGP-immunoreactive cells became larger than that of BGP-immunoreactive cells. By contrast, in hepatic cells, which serve as a major storage site for glycogen in adults, glycogen was detected only from stage 20, in smaller amounts, without formation of aggregates, and no immunoreactivity specific for BGP or MBGP was apparent throughout the embryonic stages examined. Thus, in the epithelium of the digestive tract and the parenchyma of the pancreas, but not in hepatic cells, the appearance and localization of GP coincided almost exactly with that of glycogen. These observations suggest that glycogen in the epithelium of the digestive tract and the parenchyma of the pancreas has not only been synthesized but also degraded from an early embryonic period and may, thus, be related to active cellular metabolism that is specific for embryonic development, including proliferation of the epithelium and interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: fibrous dysplasia ; maxillary sinus ; radiographic findings ; computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fibrous dysplasia is a relatively rare tumorous lesion in the maxillofacial region. The radiographic appearance of this lesion varies widely in the jaw. Generally, the occurrence rate is higher in the maxilla than in the mandible. The purpose of this study was to report six cases of fibrous dysplasia associated with the maxillary sinus. In this study, we examined radiographic patterns which demonstrated the lesion's affect on the sinus radiographically. Mixed radiopacity and radiolucency (the so-called ground glass appearance) was also seen in each of these cases. In four cases in which CT images were obtained, the lesion showed buccal expansion and infiltration into the maxillary sinus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumour of the human gastrointestinal tract. Most GISTs are solitary, and gain-of-function mutations of the KIT protooncogene have been found in these tumours. We report here a family with multiple GISTs: affected members all ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1468-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim This paper compares the effects of MC903 (calcipotriol) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3; calcitriol] on differentiation and proliferation of normal human keratinocytes cultured in serum-free medium. In order to understand the inhibitory mechanism of MC903, we examined its effect on cell cycle kinetics and the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (pRB), a tumor suppressor gene products, in normal human keratinocytes.Background The hormonally active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], regulates the differentiation and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. MC903 is a novel vitamin D3 analogue which is at least 100 times less potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in its effects on calcium homeostasis.Methods We analyzed cell differentiation and cell cycle by flow cytometry using a FACScan, and pRB phosphorylation by Western blotting and densitometer.Results MC903 induced growth inhibition and differentiation of human keratinocytes. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that 10-6 M of MC903 induced cell cycle arrest in both G1/G0 (62.4 ± 0.7% versus 56.5 ± 1.7% in control, p 〈 0.01) and G2 + M (19.2 ± 0.3% versus 14.0 ± 0.9% in control, p 〈 0.01) phase. 10-6 M of MC903 also increased the depnosphorylated pRB from 25% at 0 h to 84% at 48 h, as well as 1,25(OH)2D3.Conclusions Since pRB phosphorylation is supposed to be essential for the progression from G1 to S phase, the inhibition of pRB phosphorylation could be responsible for the G1/G0 growth arrest induced by MC903 in normal human keratinocytes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1436-3305
    Keywords: Key words: gastric cancer ; neoadjuvant chemotherapy ; UFT
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become one of the topics of interest in chemotherapy of gastric cancer; the present study assessed the clinical benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with oral uracil and futrafur (UFT) for gastric cancer. Methods. Between 1991 and 1997, 82 patients with gastric cancer (36 with early and 46 with advanced cancers) received UFT at 300–600 mg/day orally for 1–6 weeks before surgery. Objective responses, histological effects, and postsurgical survival rates were assessed. Results. In 69 of the 82 patients, the objective responses of the primary lesions were assessed by endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series examination, and 2 complete responses (CR)s, 25 partial responses (PRs), and 42 no changes (NCs) were seen (39.1% response). Histological effects were evaluated in 82 patients, and 2 grade 3, 11 grade 2, 11 grade 1b, 27 grade 1a, and 31 grade 0 effects were seen. A longer period of UFT administration was associated with a CR or PR. However, the objective responses did not correlate with the histological effects. All the patients underwent gastrectomy, and during the median follow-up period of 41 months, 3-year survival rates were 97.1% for pTNM stage 1, 75% for stage 2, 86.7% for stage 3, and 41.6% for stage 4. The survival rates of stage 3 and stage 4 patients were higher than those of the historical controls in our department. However, CR or PR did not correlate with the improvement in survival. Side effects before surgery were not serious; they included slight myelotoxicity, liver dysfunction, and anorexia; however, 3 patients (3.7%) had suture insufficiency, 3 patients (3.7%) had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enteritis, and 7 patients (8.5%) had liver dysfunction. Conclusions. Preoperative chemotherapy for gastric cancer with oral UFT was safe and resulted in a good local response (macro- and microscopically) which may indicate the possibility of improved survival with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with UFT. Furthermore, preoperative chemotherapy with oral UFT is easy and patients can receive this treatment on an outpatient basis.
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