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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In Iceland the rearing temperature of salmonid fish, mostly Atlantic salmon, is generally below 10°C. Infections most often characterized by shallow skin lesions that may cause considerable mortality have been endemic in the country since rearing in salt water started. A variety of Vibrio spp. has been isolated from the diseased fish. In the present study, a total of 58 strains isolated from salmonid fish and 21 reference strains were subjected to a numerical taxonomy study. The results show that two phena are most common in the diseased fish; one of them includes V. marinus, whereas the other does not include a reference strain but has similarities to V. logei. Challenge tests showed that a representative strain of the phenon that included V. marinus is pathogenic for Atlantic salmon with an LD50 lower than 3.5 × 103.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The genetic diversity and relationships among 154 Bacillus cereus/B. thuringiensis isolates recovered from soil samples from five geographic areas in Norway were investigated with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE). Cluster analysis revealed two major groups (designated cluster I and cluster II) separated at genetic distance greater than 0.55. Cluster I included 62 electrophoretic types (ETs) originating from all five locations, whereas, in cluster II, all but one isolate were from the same location. The isolates were also serotyped with B. thuringiensis flagellar antisera, and 28 distinct serotypes were identified. In general, serotyping did not show correlation to the genetic diversity of the isolates. The presence of IS231- and IS240-like transposable elements was detected in 14% of the strains of cluster II only. Parasporal crystals were observed in three strains; ten other strains were toxic to Trichoplusia ni. We conclude that B. cereus/B. thuringiensis from soil exhibit a high degree of recombination.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 394 (1998), S. 431-431 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Key species groups that affect major ecological processes are vital components of community diversity. Many such key groups are found in the soil, including the mycorrhizal fungi that may connect plants into a functional “wood-wide web”. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations are ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract High temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used for studying “in situ” the phase dynamics of the silicon rich part of the binary Fe-Si system. In particular the rate and mechanism of the transformation of the so-called zeta-alpha phase of iron disilicide to the zeta-beta phase is of special interest, since there still remains uncertainty about the stability and the structure of the phase in this system which influence material properties such as compressive strength and disintegration. In the present work the phase transition from the zeta-alpha phase to the zeta-beta phase is followed by a time sequence of Mössbauer spectra recorded every three hours at a fixed temperature around 800 K. The exponential precipitation rate is analysed and the exponent calculated. Samples with differing degree of impurities have been studied and the effect of aluminium impurities on the rate of the transition will be discussed. The Debye temperature of the two phases was determined from series of Mössbauer spectra recorded at temperatures between 300 and 800 K.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1971
    Keywords: Key words: Coarctation of the aorta — Hypertension — Recoarctation — Exercise testing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this investigation was to study exercise-induced hypertension after surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Groups of 27 patients with CoA and 27 healthy control subjects, 6–21 years old, were exercised to exhaustion using the Bruce protocol. Fourteen patients had undergone surgery during the first year of life (group A), and 13 patients had been operated on later (group B). The pulse rate and systolic blood pressures (BP) in the arm and leg were measured before, during, and after exercise to evaluate changes in the BP and the arm/leg BP gradient with exercise. The systolic BP was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls at all stages of the exercise test (p 〈 0.01), as was the arm/leg BP gradient both before and after exercise (p 〈 0.01); the latter increased significantly with exercise in the patient group (p 〈 0.05). We found hypertension to be a more common and severe problem in group B patients, who had higher blood pressures than their controls at rest and during exercise (p 〈 0.05). Exercise-induced hypertension was also more common in group B (23%) than in group A (7%). We conclude that exercise-induced hypertension and recoarctation are problems in postoperative CoA patients. Moreover, exercise-induced hypertension is more common in patients with CoA operated on after the first year of life.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1971
    Keywords: Key words: Coarctation — Left ventricular function — Exercise — Hypertension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Postoperative coarctation (CoA) patients are often found to have signs of persistent myocardial dysfunction. M-mode echocardiography was performed to study left ventricular (LV) size, mass, and systolic function and Doppler ultrasonography to study LV filling and flow velocity in the LV outflow tract and aorta in 28 ``healthy'' postoperative CoA patients (5–21 years) and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. The early (E) and late (A) diastolic transmitral velocities were significantly higher in the patient group than in the controls (p 〈 0.05). Other diastolic parameters (isovolumic relaxation time, E/A ratio, and deceleration time of the early diastolic velocity) were similar in the two groups (p= NS). The left atrial diameter, LV wall average, end-diastolic diameter of the LV and LV mass were higher in the patients than controls (p 〈 0.05). The patients also had a higher stroke volume, cardiac output, and cardiac index than the controls (p 〈 0.01). The fractional shortening was similar in the two groups (p= NS). Blood flow velocities in both the LV outflow tract and aorta were higher in the patients than the controls (p 〈 0.0002). We found LV hypertrophy with signs of a hyperdynamic circulation (increased cardiac index and stroke volume) in our patients. An increase in A is associated with LV hypertrophy and seems to be a sensitive marker of diastolic abnormality. The rise in E is paradoxical but has been seen in other studies. The increased blood flow velocity in the LV outflow tract suggests obstruction to LV outflow and increased flow in the descending aorta is due to residual coarctation.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pediatric cardiology 20 (1999), S. 195-199 
    ISSN: 1432-1971
    Keywords: Key words: Atrial septal defects — Spontaneous closure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are found more frequently in the pediatric population than in adults, and improved diagnostic techniques with echocardiography (2DE) and Doppler facilitate diagnosis so that repair is possible at an optimal time. The purpose of our investigation was to study the size of ASDs at diagnosis, how size changes during follow-up, and to explore the relationship between size at diagnosis and need for surgery. We reviewed the medical records of all patients in Iceland with the diagnosis of ASD born between 1984 and 1993. ASD was confirmed by 2DE in all patients and defects smaller than 4 mm were excluded. ASD size was measured by 2DE from subxyphoid long and short axis views. There were 91 patients—29 males and 62 females. Four patients died from causes other than the heart defect and had not been operated upon. Seven patients with ASD primum and sinus venosus defects were excluded from analysis. There were 29 patients with a 4 mm defect, 17 patients with 5 or 6 mm defects, 8 patients with 7 or 8 mm defects, and 26 patients had defects 〉8 mm. In the 4 mm group, in 26 patients (89%) the ASD closed spontaneously or decreased in size, and 1 patient had been operated upon. In the 5 or 6 mm group, 15 of 19 ASDs (79%) had closed spontaneously, and 2 patients (9.5%) had been operated upon. In the 7 or 8 mm group, 1 of 6 ASDs (16.6%) had closed spontaneously and 3 had been closed surgically. In the 〉8 mm group, 1 of 24 ASDs had closed spontaneously and 20 (91%) had been closed surgically. We conclude that defects smaller than 6 mm in diameter are very likely to close spontaneously although follow-up is necessary. Defects larger than 8 mm have a high probability requiring operative closure.
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