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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Buckwheat herb ; Oedema protection; chronic venous insufficiency ; Fagopyrum esculentum ; microcirculation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: The efficacy of a buckwheat herb tea was determined in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods: Sixty-seven male and female patients (22–74 years) with CVI were randomly divided into two groups after a 2-week run-in period. They received either buckwheat herb tea (Fagopyrum esculentum) or a placebo tea for a period of 3 months. The main outcome measure was the lower leg volume determined by ultrasound. Subjective symptoms were assessed by a clinical symptom score system. The femoral vein diameters were measured by B-scan sonography. In a subgroup of patients capillary permeability was determined by cutaneous fluorescence angiography. Results: Although the mean partial leg volume did not change in the treatment group (from 2041 to 2073 ml), it increased in the placebo group by 110 ml (from 1972 to 2082 ml) according to intent to treat. The difference between the groups was significant. The subjective clinical symptoms were significantly reduced in both groups. The mean diameters of the femoral veins were reduced and capillary permeability was improved, but neither change was statistically significant. No drug-related adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: CVI is a very placebo-sensitive condition. The treatment with buckwheat herb tea is safe and could have a favourable influence on patients with CVI such that further oedema development is prevented.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2129
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Trigeminusneuralgie ; CSF ; Neurotransmitter ; Substanz P ; Somatostatin ; Key words Trigeminal neuralgia ; Neurotransmitters ; CSF ; Substance P ; Somatostatin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The etiology of trigeminal neuralgia is unknown, but both peripheral and central causes have been suggested. To investigate the role of central neurochemical mechanisms we measured epinephrine, norepinephrine and their breakdown product, vanilly mandelic acid (VMA), in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 16 patients (53.3 ± 8.3 years) suffering from trigeminal neuralgia. As markers for the dopaminergic system, we determined CSF levels of dopamine and its metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA). As a marker for the serotonergic system, we measured CSF levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). In addition, levels of the neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin were determined. The concentration of norepinephrine (P 〈 0.01), VMA (P 〈 0.05) and HVA (P 〈 0.05) were significantly decreased in patients with trigeminal neuralgia and correlated with the duration of the disease and depression scores. 5-HIAA was also significantly decreased (P 〈 0.05) compared to control patients. Whereas substance P was significantly elevated (P 〈 0.05), somatostatin was significantly decreased (P 〈 0.05). Various correlations between the classical neurotransmitters and the neuropeptides could be established. We hypothesize than the sum of complex neurochemical changes plays a role in the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia, which can be separated in local and more central proceedings. The increase in substance P, a major nociceptive neuromodulator, supports the concept of a local neurogenic inflammation, possibly located in the trigeminovascular system. Depending on the duration of the disease and depression, the loss of serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervation seems to reflect more central changes, possibly due to alterations in their antinociceptive descending pathways.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei der Trigeminusneuralgie werden periphere und zentrale Entstehungsmechanismen diskutiert. Daher wurden bei 16 Patienten (53,3 ± 8,3 Jahre) mit einer idiopathischen Trigeminusneuralgie in der Zerebrospinalflüssigkeit (CSF) die Neuropeptide Substanz P und Somatostatin, die Neurotransmitter Noradrenalin und Adrenalin sowie die Metaboliten Homovanillinmandelsäure (HVA), Vanillinmandelsäure (VMA) und 5-Hydroxyindoleessigsäure (5-HIAA) bestimmt. Während die Substanz P in der CSF signifikant (p 〈 0,01) erhöht gefunden wurde, war das Somatostatin gegenüber den Kontrollpersonen signifikant erniedrigt (p 〈 0,05). Noradrenalin (p 〈 0,01), 5-HIAA (p 〈 0,01), HVA (p 〈 0,05) und VMA (p 〈 0,05) waren signifikant erniedrigt. Während die Erhöhung der Substanz P einen Hinweis auf eine lokal beschränkte neurogene Entzündung im trigemino-vaskulären System geben könnte, spricht die Reduktion monoaminerger Transmitter für eine zentral gestörte Schmerzmodulation. Diese scheint mit zunehmender Krankheitsdauer und begleitender Depression stärker zu werden. Die zahlreichen Korrelationen der Neuromediatoren untereinander, insbesondere auch zwischen den Neuropeptiden und den klassischen Neurotransmittern, sprechen für komplexe neurochemische Interaktionen im Rahmen der Schmerzentstehung.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 96 (1995), S. 409-416 
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: 05.40 ; 05.70L ; 02.50
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We investigate in some detail the relaxation process in self similar hierarchies. We find that the process can be divided in four different time regimes. After an initial phase in which the connectivity of the hierarchy determines the relaxation, the system enters a kind of stationary state, which can be accurately described by a simple analytical sink-picture. At longer times the behavior of the process is correctly described by the idea of quasiequilibrium. In this regime, propagators decay with power-laws. Finally, the global equilibrium state is reached, and the evolution stops.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Intracerebral haemorrhage ; intracranial pressure ; metanephrine ; normetanephrine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is a common complication of severe intracranial disease. The aim of this study was to reveal the autonomic changes in patients suffering from acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). 25 patients with spontaneous ICH within 24 hours of onset of symptoms were included. All patients were treated with standardised medical management and the meta- and normetanephrines were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 24-hour urine every day. The mean level of normetanephrine (709±579 μg/day) and metanephrine (244±161 mg/day) were significantly elevated in comparison with a control group, p⩽0,01. The norepinephrine elevation was of greater diagnostic and prognostic importance. Maximum urinary catecholamine metabolite levels occurred between day 3 to 10 after the bleeding. Normetanephrines correlated with the prognosis and the complications of ICH: intraventricular involvement resulted in significantly elevated normetanephrine levels (896±520 μg/day versus 311±78 μg/day) p⩽0,01. Patients with a great volume of haematoma developed severe autonomic dysregulation (normetanephrines 1114±493 μg/day), whereas patients with smaller haematoma did not (339±125 μg/day) p⩽0,0001; patients with bad outcome (1014±620 mg/day) had higher levels of normetanephrines than those with a good prognosis (322±110 μg/day) p⩽0,001. A close relationship to elevated intracranial pressure was established. This study demonstrated the feasibility of detecting autonomic nervous system dysfunction in neurological intensive care patients by means of examination of the metabolites of the catecholamines in the urine. The pattern of elevation in ICH and the relation to the clinical situation is presented. Norepinephrine offers the chance of simple and feasible monitoring of autonomic dysfunction.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester, West Sussex : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0170-4214
    Keywords: Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In the paper we study the problem of control by means of a heat source g for a thermoelastic system of equationsutt - ρ∇·p(θ, ∇u) - νΔut + DΔ2 u = f, cv(θ, ∇u)θt - κΔθ - ρθ[pθ (θ, ∇u)·∇ut] - ν∣∇ut∣2 = g, in a two-dimensional domain, where both viscosity ν and rigidity D are positive. Such a system has been considered in our former papers, and existence of solutions as well as uniqueness have been obtained. Here we prove the continuity and differentiability of solutions under somewhat stronger assumptions. An example of a control problem and necessary optimality conditions are presented. The system has an interpretation as a plate reinforced with shape memory alloy (SMA) wire mesh. © 1998 B. G. Teubner Stuttgart-John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester, West Sussex : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0170-4214
    Keywords: Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau-type model of a superconducting-normal-superconducting junction is presented. The existence and the uniqueness of the solutions are proved. When the data of the model are symmetric of some kinds, the solutions turns out to be symmetric of some kinds. In this symmetric case, an approximate model with the small thickness of the normal material in the middle of the junction as coefficients of a differential system is established for the sake of numerical computations. And also the existence and the uniqueness of the solution to this approximate model are set up. © 1998 by B. G. Teubner Stuttgart-John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 77 (1995), S. 5501-5508 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The successful application of the stochastic optimization method known as simulated annealing can depend very much on the appropriate annealing schedule. While determining optimal schedules for arbitrary complex optimization problems is beyond the current scope, we here determine optimal schedules for a special class of systems with known properties. The state spaces of these special systems have the structure of self similar trees. Using methods of optimal control theory, we are able to predict the optimal schedule analytically for two distinct optimization criteria. These predictions are shown to be in good agreement with numerical results. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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