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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Mannan and xylan present in bleached softwood dissolving pulp were found to be partially resistant to hemicellulases even after repeated enzyme treatment. Despite the additional effect of an endoglucanase from Gloeophyllum sepiarium, which increased the␣accessibility of mannan and xylan to a mannanase from Sclerotium rolfsii and to a xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the enzyme mixture solubilized only half of the hemicellulose present in the pulp. Half of the remaining hemicellulose present in the pulp appeared to be entrapped within the cellulose matrix while the other half was associated with lignin-carbohydrate complexes. The latter hemicellulose portion was isolated and characterized. Chromatography and spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of two types of lignin-carbohydrate complex, a galactoglucomannan-lignin complex (degree of polymerization DP 50–60) and a xylan-lignin complex (DP 〉200).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Epoxide hydrolase mRNA ; Mouse ; Peroxisome ; Clofibrate ; Hypolipidemic drug
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA level in liver was increased eight-fold upon administration of the hypolipidemic drug and peroxisome proliferator clofibrate for 7 days to mice. The soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA was back at control levels within 1–2 days after clofibrate withdrawal. The highest expression was in liver, intestine and kidney. Lower levels were found in heart and muscle and very low levels were found in testes, lung, brain and spleen. The mRNA levels were increased in liver, kidney and heart by clofibrate.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study aims at evaluating an objective method for the description of bone structure in the human mandible. Human bone biopsies were harvested at mandibular implant sites prior to insertion of self-tapping Mark II fixtures. Altogether 15 biopsies were taken from 12 patients. Three patients donated 2 biopsies each, one proximally and one distally taken. Ground sections of about 100μm thickness were prepared prior to microradiography. These sections were ground to a final thickness of about 10μm followed by histological staining. Histomorphometrical analyses were performed on the microradiographed plates and on the ground sections. On average there was a bone area of about 54% calculated on the microradiographed plates (the 100-μm sections) versus a mean bone area of 62% light microscopically (the 10-μm sections). Bone lengths were calculated on the 10-μm sections in the central part (mid-line) and on each side of the mid-line, revealing a mean of 58% in the former case and a mean of 61% in the latter case. The amount of bone varied between individuals and in different locations of the same jaw. The postoperative healing period following fixture installation is standardized regardless of bone structure. It may in the future be appropriate to more individualize this healing period based on an objective bone quality score.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Key words. Development; differentiation; regeneration; neuron; glia.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The central nervous system is generated from neural stem cells during embryonic development. These cells are multipotent and generate neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The last few years it has been found that there are populations of stem cells also in the adult mammalian brain and spinal cord. In this paper, we review the recent development in the field of embryonic and adult neural stem cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Thirty-six tibiae from 11 female and 7 male cadavers were dissected. Anatomical and histological examinations of the plantar flexor muscle origins at the posteromedial border of the tibia were performed. Many individual variations in the type and size of muscle origin were observed.Muscle fibers and/or connective tissue in different proportions attached the muscle to the periosteum or directly to the cortical bone. The length of the attachments varied greatly and there was a considerable overlap of the muscles in some individuals. The attachments of the flexor digitorum longus overlapped the tibialis posterior and the flexor digitorum longus muscle was overlapped by the soleus muscle. In two cases the soleus muscle did not attach to the tibia at all. Our findings may shed some light on the question as to why some athletes sustain posteromedial tibial stress fractures and others develop shin splits or other posteromedial injuries from similar precipitating activity.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 85 (1999), S. 2793-2799 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The magnetic properties of two-dimensional arrays of Fe particles with well-defined geometry, prepared by electron lithography from epitaxial Fe (001) films of thickness of 50 nm, have been studied. Circular particles with diameters of 0.6 and 0.4 μm and rectangular particles 0.9 μm×0.3 μm and 0.7 μm×0.2 μm, were positioned in square and rectangular lattices, respectively, with lattice constants about twice the particle dimensions. Samples were prepared with the lattices oriented along the 〈100〉 and 〈110〉 directions. Hysteresis curves were obtained in the field range ±2 T at temperatures between 30 and 300 K. The hysteresis curves are characteristic for single particles with a multidomain zero-field state. The magnetization and demagnetization processes are mainly governed by the geometrical shape of the particles and their orientation with respect to the crystal directions and the applied field. This implies that the high quality in the epitaxial Fe films is preserved during the patterning process. Magnetic images, obtained by magnetic force microscopy, support the conclusions drawn from the magnetization measurements. The circular particles showed a fourfold symmetry in their magnetic image, which is compatible with the expected domain structure in a disk with cubic crystalline anisotropy. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare belongs to the normal cutaneous flora but is also considered to be one of the factors that may contribute to atopic dermatitis (AD). In the present study we investigated the possibility that P. orbiculare can act with superantigen activity in AD. P. orbiculare-reactive T-cell lines (TCLs) were obtained after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with P. orbiculare extract. T-cell receptor β-chain V-segment (TCRBV) usage was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. We could not find any difference in TCRBV usage between AD patients (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 5), either in fresh PBMC or in P. orbiculare-reactive TCLs. Compared with their original PBMCs the P. orbiculare-reactive TCLs showed a decreased usage of several TCRBVs, although increased usage of certain TCRBVs could be seen in some of the individuals. Further analysis of the CDR3-length polymorphism exhibited a shift in CDR3-length distribution, indicating oligoclonal expansion of T cells specific to different antigens in the P. orbiculare extract. In conclusion we have not found any evidence for superantigen activity in P. orbiculare extract, but our data support the importance of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted allergens in P. orbiculare.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Ag–Mn nanoparticles were prepared by advanced gas evaporation. Their composition corresponded to Ag0.89Mn0.11, and the particle size distribution was log normal. The particles demonstrated an unambiguous spin glass behavior with the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility displaying a plateau at ∼25 K. The magnetic domains were limited by the size of the particles. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-5775
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to measure very low concentrations of Al, V, Fe, Cr and other metal elements in a matrix of P, S, Cl, Ca and other constituent elements of the human body. These metal elements were released from a failed total hip replacement prosthesis into the surrounding tissues. The experimental results have been compared with those from proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy of the same specimen.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with increased levels of serum igE. and T-helper (Th) cells are thought to a play role in the pathogenesis. Individuals with AD often develop IgE antibodies against the yeast Pityrosporum orhiculare. a member of the normal cutaneous flora.Objective The role of P. orbiculare in atopic dermatitis was investigated by examining the T-cell reactivity for P. orbiculare.Methods Freshly isolated peripheral blood monoruclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 10 AD patients with serum IgE antibodies against P. orbiculare, and from six healthy controls. The proliferative response after P. orbiculare stimulation, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, was examined in the PBMC and in T-cell clones (TCC) obtained from skin and blood of one patient. The cytokine profile of the TCC was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorhent assay (ELISA). radioimmunoassay (RIA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) following challenge with either P. orbiculare extract or anti-CD3 antibodies and phytohaemag-glutinin.Results The PBMC response to P. orbiculare was significantly higher in the AD patients than in the control group (P 〈 0.05). Twenty-nine out of 36 tested TCC derived from one responding patient were reactive for P. orhiculare. The clones were CD2+ and CD4+, except for one CD8+ blood clone. A majority of the TCC derived from lesional skin showed a Th2- or Th2/Th0-like cytokine profile. A co-expression of interIeukin-5 (IL-5) mRNA and II-13 mRNA was detected in five out of six P. orhicularc-reative clones analysed for their cytokinc gene expression with RT-PCR.Conclusion Our data suggest that P. orhiculare can induce a T-cell response in AD patients. The Th2-like profile of P. orbiculare-reactive TCC derived from lesional skin indicates that P. orhiculare may play a role in maintaining IgE-mediated skin inflammation in AD.
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