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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Liver, eosinophilic infiltration—Liver, CT.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We present three cases of focal eosinophilic infiltration in the liver that mimicked hepatic malignancy on computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP). In all patients, focal eosinophilic liver infiltration appeared as a solitary nodule or as two nodules without hepatosplenomegaly and showed homogeneous hyperattenuation on CTHA and hypoattenuation on CTAP.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ; Multiple sclerosis ; Myelin basic protein ; Polyradiculitis ; T cell clone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in the Lewis rat by the passive transfer of a cytotoxic CD4+ T cell clone specific for the 72–89 peptide of guinea-pig myelin basic protein (MBP). Histological studies on rats with neurological signs showed that inflammation was present in the proximal peripheral nervous system (PNS), namely the spinal roots, as well as in the central nervous system (CNS). The main sites of demyelination were the spinal roots in the PNS, and the spinal cord root entry and exit zones in the CNS. The major involvement of the proximal PNS in autoimmune disease directed at MBP is in marked contrast to EAE induced by immunisation with myelin proteolipid protein, where the inflammation and demyelination are restricted to the CNS. These findings may have implications for the human inflammatory demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis, in which MBP is a putative target antigen.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: Pelvic organs, MR—Pelvis, MR—Pelvic organ, neoplasms—Fistula, colonic—Fistula, enterovesical—Fistula, enterocutaneous.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Background: This multi-institutional study examines appearances of pelvic fistulas on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Methods: MR images of 46 patients with documented fistulas from five teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), and intravenous gadolinium chelate-enhanced T1-weighted (Gd-T1WI) images. Imaging sequences were separately and then collectively reviewed. The following determinations were made: fistula detection, fistula morphology and signal intensity, and the presence of associated abnormalities. Fistulas were classified into two categories: (1) fistulas that communicate with the bladder and (2) fistulas that do not communicate with the bladder. Fistulas within these two groups were subclassified further. The presence of fistulas was documented by surgery (five patients), endoscopy (six patients), fistulogram (20 patients), or physical exam (15 patients). Results: Among the 46 patients, 53 fistulas were documented by means other than MR. Overall T1WI, T2W1 and Gd-T1WI images demonstrated 23, 31, and 39 of 53 fistulas, respectively. Gd-T1W1 detected significantly more fistulas than T1W1 (p 〈 0.05). Bladder fistulas were better shown on Gd-T1WI (8/15 fistulas) than on T1WI and T2WI (2/15 and 3/15) (p 〈 0.05). Nonbladder fistulas were demonstrated by T1WI, T2WI, and Gd-T1WI images in 21, 28, and 31 of 38 fistulas, respectively. Among all fistulas, perianal fistulas (a subcategory of nonbladder fistula) had the highest detection by T1WI, T2WI, and Gd-T1WI in 19, 20 and 22 of 23 fistulas, respectively. On T1WI, 19 of 23 detected fistulas were low in signal intensity. On T2WI, 28 of 39 detected fistulas were high in signal intensity. On Gd-T1WI images, 29 of 40 fistulas were low in signal intensity, with enhanced tract wall. Conclusion: Bladder fistulas were best shown on Gd-T1WI, which was significantly greater than on T1WI or T2WI. Nonbladder fistulas were comparably shown by all techniques, with all performing modestly well. Perianal fistulas were shown equally well by all MR sequences and were the fistulas demonstrated with the highest sensitivity on MR images.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Certain steps from the production to infection of the amphotrophic retroviral vector, MFG-LacZ, were optimized and the factors that affect retroviral titers were analyzed. Retroviral vector titers were highest when the culture supernatant was harvested 3 days after the producer cells had reached confluence. About a 2-fold increase in vector production was achieved at 32°C compared to that at 37°C. Low serum concentrations had no significant effect on the titers of virus produced by the CRIP cell line. Retroviral vectors were stable at 4°C but very unstable at 37°C and were quite sensitive to freezing and thawing. About 30%–50% of viral infectivity was lost during the thawing step and the loss was not recovered by the addition of commonly used cryoprotectants. Increase in viral exposure time for infection to target NIH3T3 cells was linearly proportional to the retroviral titer for up to 15 h. In addition, using DEAE-dextran in place of polybrene as a polycation during infection enhanced infection efficiency about 3-fold. The retrovirus was robust to simple ultrafiltration and its titer could be easily concentrated 16-fold. Taken together, our data suggest that at least a 100-fold increase in titer can be achieved with simple optimization.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Certain steps from the production to infection of the amphotropic retroviral vector, MFG-LacZ, were optimized and the factors that affect retroviral titers were analyzed. Retroviral vector titers were highest when the culture supernatant was harvested 3 days after the producer cells had reached confluence. About a 2-fold increase in vector production was achieved at 32°C compared to that at 37°C. Low serum concentrations had no significant effect on the titers of virus produced by the CRIP cell line. Retroviral vectors were stable at 4°C but very unstable at 37°C and were quite sensitive to freezing and thawing. About 30%–50% of viral infectivity was lost during the thawing step and the loss was not recovered by the addition of commonly used cryoprotectants. Increase in viral exposure time for infection to target NIH3T3 cells was linearly proportional to the retroviral titer for up to 15 h. In addition, using DEAE–dextran in place of polybrene as a polycation during infection enhanced infection efficiency about 3-fold. The retrovirus was robust to simple ultrafiltration and its titer could be easily concentrated 16-fold. Taken together, our data suggest that at least a 100-fold increase in titer can be achieved with simple optimization.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of ligands interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) to produce numerous direct and indirect actions on central nervous system cells. They induce the proliferation of astrocytes and multipotent progenitors (‘stem’ cells) and promote the survival and differentiation of postmitotic neurons. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) interacts with both EGF-R and a related receptor, ErbB4, whereas transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) interacts only with EGF-R. Because of the unique characteristics of HB-EGF and the potential utility of EGF family members in brain repair, we examine the effects of HB-EGF on rat and mouse CNS cells in vitro and compare them to those of TGFα. We find that, like TGFα, HB-EGF stimulates the proliferation of CNS astrocytes and multipotent progenitors. These proliferative effects require the expression of EGF-R, as no such effects are observed in cells derived from EGF-R–/– mice. Both HB-EGF and TGFα enhanced the survival of neurons derived from the neocortex and the striatum. Within these neuron-enriched cultures, nestin-positive cells but not neurons express EGF-R mRNA, indicating that the neurotrophic actions of EGF-R ligands are a result of indirect stimulation mediated by non-neuronal cells. The neurotrophic actions of HB-EGF and TGFα are accompanied by an elevation in immunoreactive dual phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in neurons, providing evidence that the MAP kinase cascade mediates these actions. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that HB-EGF mRNA is present within the brainstem as early as E14 and subsequently is found in the developing cortical plate, hippocampus, cerebellar Purkinje cells and ventrobasal thalamus, among other brain areas. These findings indicate that HB-EGF may be an important trophic factor in the developing CNS and is a useful candidate molecule for brain repair strategies.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The neutrophilic dermatoses are significantly associated with myeloid malignancies. We now describe the clinical and histological features of 11 patients with these disorders, namely Sweet's syndrome in three cases, pyoderma gangrenosum in two, and neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in one; there were also five others which could not be categorised as recognised entities. Our observations, as well as those from a review of the literature, support the hypothesis that in the neutrophilic dermatoses associated with myeloid malignancy, a common mechanism may he involved.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent reports in the literature strongly support the idea that cement is the optimum form of fixation of the femoral component in total hip replacement. For hybrid total hip arthroplasty, we used a cemented cup instead of an uncemented cup since this was inevitable in cases of poorly developed acetabulum. The uncemented cone femoral component is also beneficial in cases of extremely narrow and cylindrical configuration of the medullary cavity of untreated congenital dislocation of the hips (CDH) and tuberculosis or septic arthritis in childhood. We reviewed the clinical result of a consecutive series of patients with cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared with recent studies on hybrid reconstruction using survivorship analysis. This subsequent study involved a hybrid uncemented Wagner cone femoral component and a cemented acetabular component with roof reinforcement by additional impacted cancellous allograft with hydroxyapatite (HA). We believe that early failure of the cemented components was due to an adverse effect of thin cement mantles around cemented femoral stems as well as the cemented cup in THA. In addition, 8 patients who received our modification of the Charnley CDH component had poor results even though we reduced the stem geometry and thickness. Furthermore, intraoperative fracture and splitting of the proximal femur was a major complication during implantation. Contrary to expectations, the results of these hybrid reconstructions were extremely encouraging (average follow-up period of 2–4.5 years). In addition to our experience of the cemented versus hybrid THA involving the uncemented Wagner femoral component, we have determined positive indications for the untreated and severely distorted anatomy of bilateral CDH for which surgical interventions for reconstruction were not recommended before.
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