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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Hodgkin's disease ; Positron emission tomography ; Sweat glands ; Fluoro deoxyglucose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin's disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Open MRI ; Shoulder instability ; Gadolinium ; Apprehension test position ; Bankart lesion ; Hill-Sachs lesion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an alternative MR assessment procedure for analysis of unstable shoulders. Twelve patients with unilateral recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation had both shoulders examined. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with an open-MR system in the apprehension position with the shoulder in 90 ° of abduction and maximum tolerable external rotation. Contrast enhancement was achieved with intravenous gadolinium. Correlations were made to the findings at operation. In 10 of 12 unstable shoulders the inferior glenohumeral ligament labral complex (IGHLLC) was detached from the glenoid as seen on MR and later verified during surgery. In one shoulder MR was unable to show a capsulolabral detachment that was verified at surgery, whereas in one shoulder both MR and surgical assessment revealed no soft tissue detachment (accuracy 92 %). A Hill-Sachs lesion was visualized and verified in all unstable shoulders, whereas the stable controls revealed normal IGHLLC and no Hill-Sachs lesion. Open-MRI evaluation of the shoulder in the apprehension test position may become a useful tool for the evaluation of anterior shoulder instability.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Epidermal growth factor ; Murine monoclonal antibody ; Glioma ; Immunotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Malignant glioblastoma may over-express the epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGF-R). Normal brain cells show a low or no expression of EGF-R. A mouse monoclonal antibody (IgG2A) (mAb 425) (EMD55900) (Merck KGaA, Bernstadt, Germany) directed against EGF-R was produced for therapeutic use. Eight patients with primary or recurrent, EGF-R-positive glioblastomas entered the study, which was designed to evaluate the clinical effect of the mAb. In order to achieve a high tumor cell saturation, the mAb was injected intratumorally twice weekly through an implantable catheter. The total administered dose varied between 4 mg and 120 mg. In 3 patients with solid tumors, a massive tumor necrosis was noted, with infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and T cells. A further 3 patients developed clinical and radiological signs of an intense, local, inflammatory reaction. There may be a relation between the mAb dosage and the antitumor effect, insofar as higher doses seemed to cause a more pronounced, inflammatory reaction. Of the 8 patients, 6 developed human, anti-(mouse Ig) antibodies. This anti-EGF-R mAb may induce an intense, inflammatory reaction and a considerable necrosis in glioblastoma. However, the planned schedule could not be completed, even after the dose level was re-adjusted, owing to inflammatory reactions, which were severe without prior tumor debulking.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A prospective, randomized study was performed in 559 patients to compare two doses of oral cefadroxil with three doses of intravenous cefuorxime as antibiotic prophylaxis in intra- and subtrochanteric hip fracture surgery. Antibiotic concentrations in the wound fluid were determined at the start and at the end of the operation. The first dose of cefadroxil was given about 2 h before surgery and cefuroxime about 30 min before operation. In 226/242 (93%) patients randomized to oral cefadroxil, the concentration in the wound during surgery was on average 15 /gmg/ml, i.e., well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC-90) for Staphylococcus aureus. In the cefuroxime group, antibiotic levels in the wound exceeded the MIC-90 for S. aureus in 204/210 (97%) of the patients at the start and/or at the end of surgery. All patients were followed up for 4 months. One deep and five superficial infections occurred in the cefuroxime group and no deep but one superficial infection in the cefadroxil group (P = 0.07). S. aureus was cultured in three of the infected cases while cultures were negative in four patients. Four of the seven infected patients had adequate levels of antibiotic in the wound during surgery, and in three patients no antibiotic assay was performed. The infected patients did not differ in age, sex, operation time, bleeding or any other basic variable compared with patients who healed without complications. Two doses of cefadroxil seems to be practical and as effective as intravenously administered cefuroxime as antibiotic prophylaxis in trochanteric hip fracture surgery.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Shoulder ; Traumatic primary anterior dislocation ; Arthroscopic lavage ; Non-operative regime
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Young individuals have a high recurrence rate following non-operative treatment of traumatic primary anterior shoulder dislocation. The present multicentre study was undertaken to find out whether the results could be improved by using arthroscopic lavage as treatment. Sixty patients aged 16–30 years, with traumatic primary anterior shoulder dislocation were randomised into two groups. One group was treated with arthroscopic lavage within 10 days, while the other group was treated non-operatively. Rehabilitation was otherwise identical. At 1-year follow-up, 4 of 30 patients (13%) in the lavage group had had redislocation compared with 13 of 30 (43%) in the group treated non-operatively (P = 0.01).The difference in recurrence rate was more pronounced in younger patients. The functional outcome according to the Rowe shoulder score was better in the lavage group (P = 0.003), as was the anterior stability according to the apprehension test (P = 0.008). We conclude that arthroscopic lavage reduced the recurrence rate and produced a better functional outcome at 1-year follow-up than the non-operative treatment in young individuals.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Chemotherapy ; Osteosarcoma ; Technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ; Therapy evaluation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The use of gamma camera scintigraphy with technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) for assessment of the response of high-grade osteosarcoma to preoperative chemotherapy was evaluated. Twelve patients with osteosarcoma of the extremities underwent planar examination with 99mTc-MIBI before and after preoperative chemotherapy according to the recommendations of the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group. After calculating a quotient for the tumour and the average activity of both extremities and correcting for background activity, the change in uptake between the two examinations was assessed. This was compared with histological examination of the ultimately resected specimen in 11 patients and progressive clinical disease in one. All the 11 tumours undergoing histological examination showed cellular necrosis of between 50% and 100% as well as a reduced uptake of 99mTc-MIBI, while the single progressive tumour showed an increased uptake. There was a correlation between the reduction of radiopharmaceutical uptake and the histological response in the entire series, while the variation was too large to allow conclusions in individual patients. This variation may have biological reasons or may be due to the planar imaging technique, which only allows semiquantitative evaluation. The technique reflects response to therapy but is not yet clinically applicable for the identification of poor responders, which would serve as a basis for alteration of the chemotherapy regimen. In order to evaluate whether such a role could be fulfilled, further studies using single-photon emission tomography with correction for attenuation and scattering of photons are necessary.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Chemotherapy ; Osteosarcoma ; Technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ; Therapy evaluation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The use of gamma camera scintigraphy with technetium-99m hexakis-2-methcxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) for assessment of the response of high-grade osteosarcoma to preoperative chemotherapy was evaluated. Twelve patients with osteosarcoma of the extremities underwent planar examination with99mTc-MIBI before and after preoperative chemotherapy according to the recommendations of the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group. After calculating a quotient for the tumour and the average activity of both extremities and correcting for background activity, the change in uptake between the two examinations was assessed. This was compared with histological examination of the ultimately resected specimen in 11 patients and progressive clinical disease in one. All the 11 tumours undergoing histological examination showed cellular necrosis of between 50% and 100% as well as a reduced uptake of99mTc-MIBI, while the single progressive tumour showed an increased uptake. There was a correlation between the reduction of radiopharmaceutical uptake and the histological response in the entire series, while the variation was too large to allow conclusions in individual patients. This variation may have biological reasons or may be due to the planar imaging technique, which only allows semi quantitative evaluation. The technique reflects response to therapy but is not yet clinically applicable for the identification of poor responders, which would serve as a basis for alteration of the chemotherapy regimen. In order to evaluate whether such a role could be fulfilled, further studies using single-photon emission tomography with correction for attenuation and scattering of photons are necessary.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new and improved type of x-ray capillary optics unit (ellipsoidal), is developed, tested, and characterized using a table-top x-ray microbeam setup. The beam profiles of the x-ray beams generated by the 7.5 μm ellipsoidal capillary were constructed from "knife-edge'' scans across the beam. The detection limits for various elements were determined, and the spatial resolution, when the beam was used in scanning mode, was demonstrated. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Leukocyte adhesion molecules have been associated with airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma and obstructive chronic bronchitis. Lately, it has become possible to measure circulating forms of cell adhesion molecules ‘cCAMs) in body fluids. Elevated serum levels have been found in acute asthma and in obstructive chronic bronchitis. We investigated whether the patterns of cICAM-1, cVCAM-1, and cE-selectin could serve as markers for airway inflammation in stable asthma and stable nonobstructive chronic bronchitis. Small-volume bronchial lavage ‘BL) and serum from 15 controls, 13 asthmatics without steroid inhalation therapy, 11 asthmatics with regular steroid inhalation therapy, and 10 smokers with chronic bronchitis were analyzed. We found cICAM-1, cVCAM-1, and cE-selectin to be present in serum from patients with stable asthma and stable nonobstructive chronic bronchitis. Only cICAM-1 was found in BL fluid. No differences were seen between the subject groups for either cCAM, but levels of ECP were increased in the non-steroid-treated asthmatic group. Subject atopy or smoking did not increase the cCAM levels. In conclusion, the degree of airway inflammation in stable nonobstructive chronic bronchitis and stable asthma does not appear to be well associated with circulating ICAM-1, cVCAM-1, and cE-selectin.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of temperature and diet on the specific growth rate and food consumption of 1-summer-old Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were studied. Fish were reared singly in aquaria at six different constant temperatures (5, 9, 13, 16, 18 and 20°C). They were fed Neomysis integer or commercial pelleted food for 2 weeks and growth and food consumption were measured. In both experiments, growth rate increased to an optimum at 15°C. Growth rates were high in the range 13–18°C, with no significant (P 〉0·05) differences between temperatures. No significant (P〉 0·05) differences in growth were found between fish at 9 and 20°C. There were no effects of diet on size-adjusted growth rates. The growth efficiency decreased with increasing temperature in both treatments, but the decrease was faster in the Neomysis treatment. Charr seemed to compensate for the high water content (79·5%) of Neomysis by having a higher food intake.
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