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  • 1995-1999  (8)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of a single coronal mass ejection (CME) as observed by LASCO (July 28–29, 1996) with the results of a three-dimensional axisymmetric time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model of a flux rope interacting with a helmet streamer. The particular CME considered was selected based on the appearance of a distinct ‘tear-drop’ shape visible in animations generated from both the data and the model. The CME event begins with the brightening of a pre-existing coronal streamer which evolves into a ‘tear-drop’ shaped loop followed by a Y-shaped structure. The brightening moves slowly outward with significant acceleration reaching velocities of ∼450 km s-1 at 30 R⊙. The observed CME characteristics are compared with the model results. On the basis of this comparison, we suggested that the observed features were caused by the evacuation of a flux rope in the closed field region of the helmet streamer (i.e., helmet dome). The flux rope manifests itself as the cavity of the quasi-static helmet streamer and the whole system becomes unstable when the flux rope reaches a threshold strength. The observed ‘tear-drop’ structure is due to the deformed flux rope. The leading edge of the flux rope interacts with the helmet dome to form the typical loop-like CME. The trailing edge of this flux rope interacts with the local bi-polar field to form the observed Y-shaped structure. The model results for the evolution of the magnetic-field configurations, velocity, and polarization brightness are directly compared with observations. Animations have been generated from both the actual data and the model to illustrate the good agreement between the observation and the model. These animations can be found on the CD-ROM which accompanies this volume.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We report observations by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the SOHO spacecraft of three coronal green-line transients that could be clearly associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) detected in Thomson-scattered white light. Two of these events, with speeds 〉25 km s-1, may be classified as ‘whip-like’ transients. They are associated with the core of the white-light CMEs, identified with erupting prominence material, rather than with the leading edge of the CMEs. The third green-line transient has a markedly different appearance and is more gradual than the other two, with a projected outward speed 〈10 km s-1. This event corresponds to the leading edge of a ‘streamer blowout’ type of CME. A dark void is left behind in the emission-line corona following each of the fast eruptions. Both fast emission-line transients start off as a loop structure rising up from close to the solar surface. We suggest that the driving mechanism for these events may be the emergence of new bipolar magnetic regions on the surface of the Sun, which destabilize the ambient corona and cause an eruption. The possible relationship of these events to recent X-ray observations of CMEs is briefly discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9508
    Keywords: Image compression ; Fourier filtering ; Image quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The increasing use of data compression by space mission experiments poses the question of quality of the images obtained after the compression-decompression process. Indeed, working on an Image Compression Module (ICM), Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), with 8*8 pixel-sized sub-images (each pixel being coded on eight bits), one can find blocking effects on their boundaries. Avril and Nguyen (1992, thereafter ANG 1992), have shown that One Neighbour Accounting Filters, used after image reconstruction without modifying the coding method , provide the best and fastest correction as far as linear filtering is concerned. We present here a non-linear method, also used after image reconstruction, but working on spatial frequencies. It allows us to segregate, in the Fourier space, the signal from the defect, and then to remove it through applying a filter adapted to the frequency spectrum of each spoiled image. Employing the reverse Fourier transform, we then retrieve the corrected image. The efficiency of this new method was tested by three different means: - when Fourier filtering is applied to a reference set of aerial photographs of the Earth, blocking effects are quite indistinguishable by human vision, even when zooming on the images, which was not the case with ONAF; - the improvement of the Root Mean Square (RMS) Error, calculated between the filtered and original images, is at least three times greater than the one obtained with ONAF; - the reconstruction of a three-dimensional view of a landscape, thanks to two stereoscopic images having undergone a compression-decompression process with an algorithm using DCT and a compression rate of about 10, is possible only after Fourier filtering has been applied. The quite good preliminary results of the application of Fourier filtering to the Clementine images of the Moon are also represented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The development of a coronal mass ejection on 1 July 1996 has been analyzed by comparing the observations of the LASCO/SOHO coronagraph with those of the Nançay radioheliograph. This comparison brings new insight and very useful diagnosis for the study of CME events. It is shown that the initial instability took place in a small volume located above an active region and that the occurrence of short radio type III bursts implies a triggering process due to magnetic field interactions. The subsequent spatial and temporal evolution of the radio emission strongly suggests that the large scale structure becomes unstable within the first minute of the event.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Keywords: Sun ; Corona ; Coronagraph
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) is a three coronagraph package which has been jointly developed for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission by the Naval Research Laboratory (USA), the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale (France), the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie (Germany), and the University of Birmingham (UK). LASCO comprises three coronagraphs, C1, C2, and C3, that together image the solar corona from 1.1 to 30 R⊙ (C1: 1.1 – 3 R⊙, C2: 1.5 – 6 R⊙, and C3: 3.7 – 30 R⊙). The C1 coronagraph is a newly developed mirror version of the classic internally-occulted Lyot coronagraph, while the C2 and C3 coronagraphs are externally occulted instruments. High-resolution imaging spectroscopy of the corona from 1.1 to 3 R⊙ can be performed with the Fabry-Perot interferometer in C1. High-volume memories and a high-speed microprocessor enable extensive on-board image processing. Image compression by a factor of about 10 will result in the transmission of 10 full images per hour.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The newly developed C1 coronagraph as part of the Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the SOHO spacecraft has been operating since January 29, 1996. We present observations obtained in the first three months of operation. The green-line emission corona can be made visible throughout the instrument's full field of view, i.e., from 1.1 R⊙ out to 3.2 R⊙ (measured from Sun center). Quantitative evaluations based on calibrations cannot yet be performed, but some basic signatures show up even now: (1) There are often bright and apparently closed loop systems centered at latitudes of 30° to 45° in both hemispheres. Their helmet-like extensions are bent towards the equatorial plane. Farther out, they merge into one large equatorial ‘streamer sheet’ clearly discernible out to 32 R⊙. (2) At mid latitudes a more diffuse pattern is usually visible, well separated from the high-latitude loops and with very pronounced variability. (3) All high-latitude structures remain stable on time scales of several days, and no signature of transient disruption of high-latitude streamers was observed in these early data. (4) Within the first 4 months of observation, only one single ‘fast’ feature was observed moving outward at a speed of 70 km s-1 close to the equator. Faster events may have escaped attention because of data gaps. (5) The centers of high-latitude loops are usually found at the positions of magnetic neutral lines in photospheric magnetograms. The large-scale streamer structure follows the magnetic pattern fairly precisely. Based on our observations we conclude that the shape and stability of the heliospheric current sheet at solar activity minimum are probably due to high-latitude streamers rather than to the near-equatorial activity belt.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Two coronal mass ejections have been well observed by the LASCO coronagraphs to move out into the interplanetary medium as disconnected plasmoids. The first, on July 28, 1996, left the Sun above the west limb around 18:00 UT. As it moved out, a bright V-shaped structure was visible in the C2 coronagraph which moved into the field-of-view of C3 and could be observed out to beyond 28 solar radii. The derived average velocity in the plane of the sky was 110 ± 5 km s-1 out to 5 solar radii, and above 15 solar radii the velocity was 269 ± 10 km s-1. Thus there is evidence of some acceleration around 6 solar radii. The second event occurred on November 5, 1996 and left the west limb around 04:00 UT. The event had an average velocity in the plane of the sky of ∼54 km s-1 below 4 R⊙, and it accelerated rapidly around 5 R⊙ up to 310 ± 10 km s-1. In both events the rising plasmoid is connected back to the Sun by a straight, bright ray, which is probably a signature of a neutral sheet. In the November event there is evidence for multiple plasmoid ejections. The acceleration of the plasmoids around a projected altitude of 5 solar radii is probably a manifestation of the source surface of the solar wind.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The development of a coronal mass ejection on 9 July 1996 has been analyzed by comparing the observations of the LASCO/SOHO coronagraphs with those of the Nancay radioheliograph. The spatial and temporal evolution of the associated radioburst is complex and involves a long-duration continuum. The analysis of the time sequence of the radio continuum reveals the existence of distinct phases associated with distinct reconnection processes and magnetic restructuring of the corona. Electrons are accelerated in association with these reconnection processes. An excellent spatial association is found between the position and extension of the radio source and the CME seen by LASCO. Furthermore, it is shown that the topology and evolution of the source of the radio continuum involve successive interactions between two systems of loops. These successive interactions lead to magnetic reconnection, then to a large scale coronal restructuring. Thus electrons of coronal origin may have access to the interplanetary medium in a large range of heliographic latitudes as revealed by the Ulysses observations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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