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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Chlorodibromomethane ; Trichloromethane ; Cardiotoxicity ; [Ca2+] i transients ; Catecholamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cardiovascular effects were investigated after acute and subacute treatment with chlorodibromomethane (CDBM; 0.4 to 3.2 mmol/kg p.o.), trichloromethane (TCM; 0.31 and 1.25 mmol/kg p.o.) and mixtures of CDBM and TCM (acute, 0.8 mmol CDBM/kg + 1.25 mmol TCM/kg p.o.; subacute, 0.4 mmol CDBM/kg+0.31 mmol TCM/kg p.o.) in conscious and urethane anaesthetized male Wistar rats (n=610 per treatment). Furthermore it was observed whether cardiovascular responses were modified in CDBM or TCM treated rats after administration of exogenous catecholamines (epinephrine, 1 μg/kg; norepinephrine, 2 μg/kg) and underpinned with in vitro alterations of Ca2+ dynamics in cardiac myocytes. The present findings demonstrated that single and subacute oral administration of CDBM or TCM and mixtures of CDBM and TCM resulted in arrhythmogenic and negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects in conscious and urethane anaesthetized rats. The atrioventricular conduction time and the intraventricular extension time were extended. A slight shortening of the repolarization velocity was observed. The myocardial contractility was depressed and the heart was sensitized to the arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine. After catecholamine injection the adrenergic cardiovascular responses in urethane anesthetized rats were modified: increased hypertensive epinephrine and norepinephrine action as well as augmentation of negative chronotropic and negative dromotropic cardiac effects of catecholamines were observed. The positive inotropic adrenergic response was diminished. The present in vivo findings, myocardial depression after acute CDBM treatment, as determined by different indices of contractility, correlate well with the observed inhibitory actions of CDBM on Ca2+ dynamics in isolated cardiac myocytes. All cardiovascular alterations found after CDBM or TCM treatment were not intensified after treatment with mixtures of CDBM and TCM. The effects observed were distinctly stronger after TCM (1.25 and 0.31 mmol/kg) treatment compared to CDBM (0.8 and 0.4 mmol/kg) treatment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A colored banding pattern for human chromosomes is described that distinguishes each chromosome in a single fluorescence in situ hybridization with a set of subregional DNA probes. Alu/polymerase chain reaction products of various human/rodent somatic cell hybrids (fragment hybrids) were pooled into two probe sets that were labeled differentially and detected by red and green fluorescence. Chromosome regions hybridized by DNA present in both pools appeared yellow. The result was a multi-color set of 110 distinct signals per haploid chromosome set for the human karyotype. Each individual chromosome showed a unique sequence of signals, a result termed the “chromosome bar code”. The reproducibility of the hybridization pattern in various labeling and hybridization experiments was analyzed by computer densitometry. We have applied the chromosome bar code both in diagnostic cytogenetics and in genome studies. The approach allows the rapid identification of chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements. Although not yet showing the resolution of classical banding patterns, the present experiments demonstrate various applications in which the present multi-color bar code can significantly add to the spectrum of cytogenetic techniques.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Spreading depression ; Retina ; Self-organization ; Z-type rotation ; Excitable media
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Spreading depression (SD) of electroencephalographic activity is a dynamic wave phenomenon in the central nervous system (CNS). The retina, especially the isolated chicken retina, is an excellent constituent of the CNS in which to observe the dynamic behavior of the SD wave fronts, because it changes its optical properties during a SD attack. The waves become visible as milky fronts on a black background. It is still controversial what the basic mechanistic steps of SD are, but certainly SD belongs to the self-organization phenomena occurring in neuronal tissue. In this work, spiral-shaped wave fronts are analyzed using digital video imaging techniques. We report how the inner end of the wave front, the spiral tip, breaks away repeatedly. This separation process is associated with a Z-shaped trajectory (extension ∼1.2 mm) that is described by the tip over one spiral revolution (period 2.45±0.1 min). The Z-shaped trajectory does not remain fixed, but performs a complex motion across the retina with each period. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that established imaging methods have been applied to the study of the two-dimensional features of SD wave propagation and to obtaining quantitative data of their dynamics. Since these methods do not interfere with the tissue, it is possible to observe the intrinsic properties of the phenomenon without any external influence.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The large-volume sampling of aqueous samples in a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector was used successfully for the target and non-target analysis of real samples. In this still rarely applied method, e.g., 1 mL of the water sample to be analyzed is slowly injected direct into the PTV. The vaporized water is eliminated through the split vent. The analytes are concentrated onto an adsorbent inside the insert and subsequently thermally desorbed. The capability of the method is demonstrated using a sample from the river Elbe. By means of coupling this method with a mass selective detector in SIM mode (target analysis) the method allows the determination of pollutants in the concentration range up to 0.01 μg/L. Furthermore, PTV enrichment is an effective and time-saving method for non-target analysis in SCAN mode. In a sample from the river Elbe over 20 compounds were identified.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Orthopäde 28 (1999), S. 347-355 
    ISSN: 1433-0431
    Keywords: Key word Hemophilic arthropathy • Acute synovitis • Chronic synovitis • Radiosynoviorthesis • Orthosis ; Schlüsselwörter Hämophile Arthropathie • Akute Synovitis • Chronische Synovitis • Radiosynoviorthese • Orthesen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Rahmen einer Hämophilie A oder B treten Muskelblutungen und Gelenkeinblutungen spontan oder als Folge eines Traumas vor allem am Knie, Ellbogen und Sprunggelenk auf. Durch die Resorption des freien Blutes entwickelt sich immer eine reaktive Synovitis, wobei es durch die Synovialishyperplasie zu erneuten Einblutungen kommen kann. Langfristig führen die Veränderungen über eine chronische Synovitis und Knorpelschädigungen zur hämophilen Arthropathie mit völliger Gelenkzerstörung. Im Hämophiliezentrum Frankfurt wurden seit 1981 158 erwachsene Patienten im Rahmen einer interdisziplinären Sprechstunde regelmäßig betreut. Zudem erfolgt seit 17 Jahren die konsiliarische orthopädische Versorgung von insgesamt 61 hämophilen Kindern aus der Universitätsklinik Frankfurt am Main. Die Inzidenz von Gelenkblutungen kann durch eine konsequente Prophylaxe mit Faktorenkonzentraten vermindert werden. Kleinere Gelenkeinblutungen können unter Faktorensubstitution durch kurzfristige Entlastung, Eisanwendungen und durch physikalisch abschwellende Maßnahmen konservativ beherrscht werden. Größere Gelenkeinblutungen sollten zur Reduktion der akuten Synovitis punktiert werden. Durch physikalische, physiotherapeutische Gelenktechniken bzw. Weichteiltechniken und medikamentöse Maßnahmen gilt es, die akute, stark schmerzhafte Synovitis zu kontrollieren. Angestrebt wird eine suffiziente muskuläre Gelenkführung sowie eine Verbesserung der Koordination und Propriozeption. Die chronische Synovitis ist relativ schmerzarm und spricht schlechter auf konservative Maßnahmen an. Lokale Eisanwendungen, systemische und lokale antiphlogistische Medikamente unterstützen die physiotherapeutischen Maßnahmen. Fersenkissen, elastische und semirigide Bandagen verhindern erneute Einblutungen durch eine Dämpfung und Reduzierung synovialer Einklemmungen. Bei therapieresistenter chronischer Synovitis kann alternativ zur Synovektomie die Radiosynoviorthese durchgeführt werden, die in Frankfurt bisher an 12 Gelenken mit guter Wirksamkeit eingesetzt wurde. Bei fortgeschrittener Arthropathie stehen physiotherapeutisch eher Gelenktechniken im Vordergrund. Orthopädische Hilfsmittel (z. B. Unterarmgehstützen) oder orthopädische Schuhzurichtungen (z. B. rückversetzte Absatzrolle) können die Gehfähigkeit deutlich verbessern.
    Notes: Summary Intraarticular bleeding and muscle bleeding occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma in hemophilia A or B. The most common sites for hemarthrosis are the knees joints, elbows and ankles joints. Resorption of intraarticular blood induces reactive hemophilic synovitis. Hyperplasia of the synovium can be followed by recurrent bleedings. These early reactions can change to a chronic synovitis and cause cartilage damage, finally resulting in a complete destruction of the joint. Since 1981 158 adults and 61 children with a hemophilia A or B were treated at the Center for hemophilic disorders Frankfurt in an interdisciplinary approach. Consequent prophylactic treatment with factor substitution can prevent the incidence of severe hemarthrosis. Minor joint bleedings are treated by adequate factor substitution, temporarily non-weight bearing of the extremity, application of ice-packs and physical therapy. More severe joint hemorrhages should be aspirated in order to reduce the acute synovitis. This is followed by a consequent physical therapy (joint and soft tissue techniques) and anti-inflammatory drugs. The goal is a sufficient muscular balance of the joint, the improvement of the coordination, and the proprioception. The chronic synovitis is less painful and poorly responses to conservative interventions. Local ice application, sytemic and local anti-inflammatory treatment support the physical therapy. Soft heel shock absorber, elastic and semi-rigid bandages prevent recurrent bleeding episodes by shock absorption and decrease of synovial impingement. Synovectomy is indicated in cases of chronic persistent synovitis. Radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), which is an alternative in certain cases, has been performed with great success in 12 cases in our hospital. In advanced arthropathy joint mobilization should be the emphasis of the physical therapy. Bandages, crutches and ortopaedic shoe devices improve the walking capacity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-0563
    Keywords: Key words Prostate cancer ; Palliation ; Radionuclides ; Schlüsselwörter Prostatakarzinom ; Palliation ; Radionuklidtherapie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei Patienten mit fortgeschrittenem Prostatakarzinom ist die suffiziente Therapie schmerzhafter Knochenmetastasen primäres, interdisziplinäres Behandlungsziel. Vorrangig erscheint die Erhaltung der Lebensqualität, nicht die Lebensverlängerung. Neben einer oralen Schmerzmedikation und lokalen Schmerzbestrahlung bieten systemische Radionuklidtherapien hilfreiche, risikoarme nuklearmedizinische Therapiealternativen in der Palliation schmerzhafter, multilokulärer osteoplastischer Knochenmetastasen. In Abhängigkeit vom gewählten Radiopharmazeutikum werden Ansprechraten und Schmerzreduktion in 65–80 % beschrieben. Die Dauer der Schmerzlinderung liegt im Mittel bei 6–12 Wochen. Während dieser Zeit kann die nebenwirkungsreiche, morphinhaltige Schmerzmedikation deutlich reduziert und in einigen Fällen ganz abgesetzt werden, was wiederum die Lebensqualität verbessert. Nach Abklingen der geringgradigen Myelodepression kann die Radionuklidtherapie wiederholt werden. Nachteilig bleibt allein der zweitägige stationäre Aufenthalt aufgrund geltender Strahlenschutzverordnung.
    Notes: Summary For patients with advanced prostate cancer efficient therapy of painfull bony lesions is the primary goal of interdisciplinary treatment strategies. Preservation of quality of life appears to be the main aim rather than prolongation of life. Apart from oral pain relief and local irradiation systemic treatment with radionuclides offers low-risk radiotherapeutic strategies for the palliation of painful, multifocal osteoplastic bone metastases. Depending on the radiopharmaceutical substance chosen response and reduction of pain are described in 65–80 %. The duration of pain relief lasts between 6–12 weeks. During this time the morphine based medication can be reduced and in some cases withdrawn which positively effects quality of life. After improvement of myelosuppression treatment with radionuclides can be repeated. Patients have to be hospitalized for two days because of protection from radiation procedures.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Beim Maldescensus testis handelt es sich um die häufigste Anomalie des Urogenitaltraktes. 3–6% aller termingerecht geborenen Knaben und 9,2% (-30,8%) der Frühgeborenen haben zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt eine Hodendystopie. Bei 1,8–2% persistiert ein behandlungsbedürftiger, nicht deszendierter Hoden nach dem ersten Lebensjahr. In über 80% ist er tastbar und liegt im Leistenkanal – meist aber vor dem äußeren Leistenring – oder suprafaszial. Ein Bauchhoden (Kryptorchismus) kommt nur in etwa 8% aller Hodendystopien vor. Um ein standardisiertes Vorgehen zu ermöglichen, wird die aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie vorgestellt. Diese muß bis zum 2. Geburtstag abgeschlossen sein, um langfristig eine Optimierung des Fertilitätsindex und auch die Palpation eines Hodentumors zu ermöglichen.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Urologe 36 (1997), S. 18-34 
    ISSN: 1433-0563
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter BPH ; α-Adrenozeptorantagonisten ; Alfuzosin ; Terazosin ; Doxazosin ; Tamsulosin ; Key words BPH ; α-Adrenoceptor antagonists ; Alfuzosin ; Terazosin ; Doxazosin ; Tamsulosin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The International Consensus Committee recommends α-adrenoceptor antagonists for medical therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This review evaluates 52 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies, including 10 399 patients and, moreover, 40 clinical studies including 33 600 patients undergoing treatment with α-adrenoceptor antagonists because of BPH. The therapeutic efficacy of all α-adrenoceptor antagonists is more or less the same. There is an average improvement of symptom scores of about 35 % and a mean increase in maximum flow rate of between 1.8 and 2.5 ml/s. Studies investigating long-term efficacy and quality of life tend to show a long-term benefit. The introduction of selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonists led to a significant reduction of side effects. These side effects are primarily caused by the vasodilatatory qualities of α-blockers. The development of so-called uroselective α1A-adrenoceptor antagonists in the treatment of BPH possibly leads to further reduction of side effects related to vasodilatation. Medical therapy by α1-adrenoceptor antagonists seems to be superior to phytotherapy or treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitors, as shown in a few studies. So far, it is not clear whether there is any advantage of combination therapy. The application of α1-adrenoceptor antagonists is indicated in all cases of symptomatic BPH, excluding patients who need TUR-P (e. g., middle lobe) or prostatectomy. If patients are either willing or eligible to have surgical treatment, therapy by α1-adrenoceptor antagonists is a rational choice. Comparative clinical trials have to be conducted to provide additional information and to clarify which α-blocker may be recommended as the first choice. Until then, those α1-adrenoceptor antagonists should be used for which safety and efficacy are well documented and which can be prescribed at reasonable costs.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das Internationale Konsensuskomitee empfiehlt α-Adrenozeptorantagonisten zur medikamentösen Therapie der benignen Prostatahyperplasie (BPH). In dieser Übersicht werden 52 randomisierte, plazebokontrollierte, doppelblinde Studien mit 10 399 Patienten sowie 40 weitere klinische Studien mit über 33 600 Patienten, die wegen einer BPH mit α-Adrenozeptorantagonisten behandelt wurden, zusammengestellt. Dabei zeigt sich, daß die therapeutische Effektivität sämtlicher α-Adrenozeptorantagonisten im wesentlichen gleich ist. Im Durchschnitt wird eine Verbesserung der Symptomenscores um 35 % beobachtet. Der mittlere Anstieg der maximalen Harnflußrate liegt zwischen 1,8 und 2,5 ml/s. Untersuchungen zur Langzeiteffektivität und Lebensqualität deuten auf andauernde Verbesserungen hin. Durch die Einführung selektiver α1-Adrenozeptorantagonisten konnte eine deutliche Verminderung der Nebenwirkungen dieser Substanzen erzielt werden. Diese Nebenwirkungen sind in erster Linie durch die blutdrucksenkenden Eigenschaften der α-Blocker bedingt. Die Etablierung sog. uroselektiver α1A-Adrenozeptorantagonisten in die Behandlung der BPH führt möglicherweise zu einer weiteren Reduktion durch Blutdrucksenkung bedingter unerwünschter Eigenschaften. Bis zur Klärung des Stellenwertes der verschiedenen Medikamente in prospektiven vergleichenden Studien, sollten solche α1-Adrenozeptorantagonisten Verwendung finden, die kostengünstig sind und sich als sicher und effektiv erwiesen haben.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Urologe 37 (1998), S. 625-628 
    ISSN: 1433-0563
    Keywords: Key words Testicular germ cell tumors • Recurrences • Inadequate treatment ; Schlüsselwörter Hodentumoren • Rezidiv • Inadäquate Therapie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Von 1983 bis 1994 wurden an der Urologischen Universitätsklinik Bonn 293 Patienten mit Hodentumoren operiert. 252 Patienten (86 %) standen für ein aktuelles Follow-up zur Verfügung. 17/252 (6,8 %) Patienten waren an ihrer Erkrankung verstorben. 41/252 (16 %) Patienten hatten ein Rezidiv nach kompletter Remission erlitten. 20/41 (49 %) Rezidivpatienten, die z. T. zur weiteren Behandlung zugewiesen worden waren, waren inadäquat therapiert worden. Die nicht standardgemäße Therapie bestand in operativen Fehlern bei der Ablatio testis, der inkompletten Residualtumorresektion, der Therapieverzögerung durch Ärzte und Patienten und Abweichungen von den Standards der Chemotherapie. 80 % der Rezidive traten in den ersten 2 Jahren nach Therapie auf, die Rate der Spätrezidive lag bei 3,6 %. Frührezidive traten vornehmlich in der Lunge auf, Spätrezidive zeigten sich zumeist im Retroperitoneum oder an atypischen Orten. Die Rate der Lokalrezidive lag insgesamt bei 20 %.
    Notes: Summary From 1983 to 1994, 293 patients with testicular germ cell tumors were treated at the Department of Urology, Bonn University, Germany. 252 patients (86 %) were available for follow-up studies. 17/252 (6.8 %) of patients died of disease, 41/252 (16 %) had a tumor recurrence after complete remission. 20/41 (49 %) patients with recurrence, who mainly had been referred for further treatment, had been treated inadequately. Inadequate treatment consisted of surgical failures after orchiectomy, incomplete retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after chemotherapy, delay of treatment, and inadequate chemotherapy. 80 % of recurrences were found within the first two years after treatment, late relapses were found in 3.6 %. Early recurrences were mainly pulmonary, late recurrences mostly occured in the retroperitoneum or atypical. 20 % of all recurrences were local recurrences.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Cell-ECM interactions ; Hydrozoa Vertebrates ; Xenografts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Extracellular matrices (ECMs) of phylogenetically very distant organisms were tested for their ability to support cell adhesion, spreading and DNA replication in reciprocal xenograft adhesion tests. Mechanically dissociated cells of the medusa Podocoryne carnea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) were seeded on ECMs of polyps and medusa, and on several ECM glycoproteins or entire ECMs from vertebrates. In reciprocal experiments, cells from different vertebrate cell-lines were seeded on ECMs of polyps, medusae and also on electrophoresed and blotted extracts of both types of ECMs. The results demonstrate that medusa cells adhere and spread on polyp and medusa ECMs but do not recognize vertebrate ECMs or purified ECM glycoproteins. Vertebrate cells in contrast adhere, spread and proliferate on ECMs of polyps and medusae. The number of attached cells depends on the cell type, the type of ECM and, in certain cases, on the stage of the cell cycle. Cell adhesion experiments with pretreated ECMs of polyps and medusae, e.g. oxidation of carbohydrate residues with sodium-metaperiodate, or blocking of certain carbohydrate moieties with the lectin wheat germ agglutinin or a carbohydrate-specific monoclonal antibody, demonstrate that ECM carbohydrates are more important for cell-ECM interactions of medusa cells than for vertebrate cells. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that polyp and medusa ECMs contain different components which strongly modulate adhesion, spreading and DNA replication of vertebrate cells.
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