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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Morphometric radiography – Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry – Osteoporosis – Precision – Vertebral deformities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Morphometric techniques, which use conventional lateral spine radiographs to quantify vertebral body shape (morphometric radiography, MRX), have proved a useful tool in the identification and evaluation of osteoporotic vertebral deformities. Recently a new method of acquiring the images required for vertebral morphometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners (morphometric X-ray absorptiometry, MXA) has been developed. In this study we compare repeat analysis precision of vertebral height measurement using MXA and MRX. Twenty-four postmenopausal women were recruited (mean age 67 + 5.8 years): 12 normal subjects and 12 with osteoporosis and vertebral deformities. Each subject had a MXA scan and lateral thoracic and lumbar radiographs at a single appointment, which were each analyzed quantitatively in a masked fashion, using a standard 6-point method, twice by one observer and once by a second observer. Anterior (Ha), mid (Hm) and posterior (Hp) vertebral heights were measured and wedge (Ha/Hp) and mid-wedge (Hm/Hp) ratios calculated for each vertebral body. Intra- and interobserver precision were consistently poorer in MXA compared with MRX in both normal subjects and those with vertebral deformities, with MXA CV% generally at least 50% higher than corresponding values for MRX. For both MXA and MRX interobserver precision was clearly poorer than intraobserver precision, a problem associated with any morphometric technique. MXA intra- and interobserver precision were significantly poorer for subjects with vertebral deformities compared with those without, with a CV% for deformity subjects up to twice that of normal subjects. Conversely, MRX showed little or no obvious worsening of intra- or interobserver precision for deformity subjects. Comparison of MXA precision in the normal and deformed vertebrae of the deformity subjects demonstrated that the poorer precision in these subjects compared with normal subjects was the result of increased variability in point placement on the deformed vertebrae themselves. However, the precision for normal vertebrae in these subjects was also somewhat poorer than the precision in normal subjects. We conclude that MXA precision is generally poorer than that of MRX and that the presence of vertebral deformities has a more pronounced effect on MXA precision than on MRX precision.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RDV ; Segment S8 ; Rice ; Transgenic plants ; Particle bombardment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The coding region of the eighth largest segment (S8) of the rice dwarf virus (RDV) was obtained from a RDV Fujian isolate. It was then cloned into pTrcHisA for expression in E. coli and into vector pE3 for plant transformation. By using callus derived from mature rice embryos as the target tissue, we obtained regenerated rice plants after bombardment of the former with plasmid pE3R8 containing the RDV S8 gene and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II). Southern blotting confirmed the integration of the RDV S8 gene into the rice genome. The expression of the outer coat protein in both E. coli and rice plants was confirmed by western blotting. The recovery of transgenic rice plants expressing S8 gene is an important step towards studying the function of the RDV genes and obtaining RDV-resistant rice plants.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Laparoscopy ; Laparoscopic-assisted abdominal aortic aneurysm repair ; Vascular
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Since the advent of laparoscopy, the sweeping changes seen in general surgery have not been paralleled in vascular surgery. There have been case reports of laparoscopic-assisted aortobifemoral bypass for occlusive disease. Because aneurysmal disease comprises the majority of aortic surgery, we pursued animal and cadaveric feasibility studies for laparoscopic-assisted abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. We present a case report of the first clinical case performed under Institutional Review Board protocol using this technique. The patient was a 62-year-old male with a 6-cm infrarenal AAA. After obtaining a pneumoperitoneum, a modified fish retractor was used to exclude the bowel. Ten 11-mm ports provided access to laparoscopically dissect the neck of the aneurysm and the iliac vessels. Then, a 10-cm minilaparotomy was performed and standard vascular clamps were inserted via the port incisions. Standard aneurysmorraphy was performed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube graft. Laparoscopy conferred three major benefits: better visualization of the aneurysm neck, less bowel manipulation, and avoidance of hypothermia. This case report illustrates the feasibility of laparoscopic-assisted aneurysm repair. Controlled human studies will define the role of laparoscopy in AAA surgery.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Abdominal imaging 20 (1995), S. 368-370 
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Bladder, abnormalities ; Ureter, calculi ; Ureter, stenosis or obstruction ; Urography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background Interureteric ridge edema may be seen at intravenous urography (IVU) and is related to acute lower ureteral obstruction, trauma, or calculi. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between interureteric ridge edema and acute distal ureteral obstruction caused by ureteral calculi. Methods A total of 338 patients who had IVU for various indications during a 6-month period were reviewed for the presence of interureteric ridge edema. Results Interureteric ridge edema was seen in 12 (4%) of 338 patients, all with acute lower ureteral obstruction from stones. Interureteric ridge edema was best demonstrated with the partially filled bladder film or postvoid bladder film in all cases. Conclusion Interureteric ridge edema is most commonly caused by stone-induced distal ureteral obstruction and is less commonly seen with recent passage of a stone or other etiologies. Interureteric ridge edema was present in 26% of patients with acute lower ureteral obstruction.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Osteoporosis — Bone volume— Prostaglandin E2— Hypophysectomy — Growth factor.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an anabolic agent of bone in vivo but the mechanism of its action still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether the effect of PGE2 on skeleton is mediated by pituitary hormones. Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: baseline control (basal), age-matched intact control (CON), hypophysectomy (HX), and HX + PGE2 (2 mg/kg/day) with 10 animals in each group. The basal group was sacrified at 2 months of age, and the remaining groups after 6 weeks of treatment. Cancellous and cortical bone histomorphometry was performed on double fluorescent-labeled 40 μm-thick sections of the proximal tibia and tibial shaft. Our results show that HX resulted in a cessation of bone growth, a decrease in cancellous bone volume, and cortical bone gain compared with the age-matched, intact CON rats. Compared with the HX group, the HX + PGE2 group had a significantly greater tibial bone density (mean ± SE, HX + PGE2:1.595 ± 0.007 versus HX:1.545 ± 0.013), percent cancellous bone volume (21.4 ± 2.0 versus 8.41 ± 1.70), percent cortical bone area (87.2 ± 0.85 versus 81.7 ± 0.7), and ratio of cortical area to marrow area (7.14 ± 0.56 versus 4.52 ± 0.21). Increased bone masses by PGE2 in the HX animals were accompanied by an increase in the trabecular and endosteal-labeled surface and bone formation rate. The trabecular number and width were increased whereas trabecular separation was decreased in the HX + PGE2 group compared with the HX group (P 〈 0.05). PGE2 treatment also caused a decrease in the tibial endosteal eroded surface and medullar cavity of the HX animals. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates that PGE2 (2 mg/kg/day) in the HX rats increases both cortical and cancellous bones and improves trabecular architecture in the tibia after 6 weeks of treatment. These skeletal alterations are due to a stimulation of bone formation and a suppression of bone resorption activity. These findings suggest that the anabolic effect of PGE2 in bone is independent of pituitary hormones.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Beta cells ; chemokine ; phospholipase-D ; DDRT-PCR ; interleukin-1 ; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ; adenine nucleotide translocator ; CINC-1 ; CINC-3.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aims/hypothesis. Interleukin-1β is a putative mediator of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and damage in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IL-1β effects, we carried out a differential display of mRNA by RT-PCR to identify novel cytokine-regulated genes. Methods. Fluorescence activated cell sorting-purified rat pancreatic beta-cells were exposed for 6 or 24 h to IL-1β. Differentially expressed cDNA bands were cloned and then identified by comparing their sequences with data from the GenBank. Differential gene expression was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers. Results. Interleukin-1β increased the expression of adenine nucleotide translocator-1, phospholipase D-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and decreased expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2. Interleukin-1β-induced differential expression of these genes in beta cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. In additional studies, IL-1β was shown to induce chemokines other than cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-3 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Conclusion/interpretation. Our observations indicate that IL-1β modifies the expression of several genes in pancreatic beta cells. These genes may affect both function, viability and beta-cell recognition by the immune system. Functional characterization of the mRNAs which have been identified could facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to beta-cell destruction in Type I diabetes. [Diabetologia (1999) 42: 1199–1203]
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The bladder is a dynamic organ that responds to the stress of outlet obstruction by rapidly increasing in mass and cellular content to compensate for increased urethral resistance. If the outlet obstruction is released prior to decompensation, the hypertrophied bladder will shrink, returning to normal size and cellularity. However, with chronic obstruction the bladder will continue to increase in mass, developing drastic alterations in the amount and composition of the extracellular matrix and, ultimately, losing the ability to function. The extensive tissue remodeling associated with each of these changes requires different bladder components to undergo cellular proliferation, cellular hypertrophy, and even programmed cell death (apoptosis). Each of these cellular processes is known to be regulated by various peptides that are referred to as growth factors. Herein we provide an overview of the growth factors that are known to influence the bladder in addition to a variety of experimental animal studies that putatively identify a role of four particular growth factors [basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), nerve growth factor (NGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)] in the obstructive bladder response.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsE. coli ; DnaJ-like ; DjlA overproduction ; Novobiocin resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In earlier studies we found that E. coli is sensitive to anticalmodulin drugs such as W7. Mutants that are resistant to this drug were isolated, including wseA1. In an attempt to clone the wseA gene, we isolated a clone that restored sensitivity to the drug in the mutant. We found that this clone in fact suppresses W7 resistance through expression of djlA, which encodes a novel DnaJ-like protein. It was found previously that overproduction of DjlA could induce capsule synthesis via activation of the two-component regulatory pathway RcsC/B. In addition to suppression of wseA1, djlA overexpression increases the sensitivity of cells to EDTA and novobiocin, but not to other drugs tested. Although overexpression of a form of the protein carrying a mutation in, or lacking, the J-region of DjlA also led to increased sensitivity, indicating that the chaperone activity of this protein was not strictly required, the full-length, wild- type protein had a more pronounced effect. In contrast, a point mutation which affects the function of the transmembrane domain but not the localisation or stability of DjlA abolished the effects of DjlA overproduction.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The ability to determine the distance migrated by an oil from source rock to reservoir could greatly assist in the identification of new, economically viable accumulations of petroleum. Non-alkylated benzocarbazoles, which are present in trace quantities in oils, exhibit changes in both ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 51 (1995), S. 1080-1082 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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