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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The monoclonal antibody Alz-50 has been proposed as a marker for cellular pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease. However, it has been reported that this antibody also reacts with specific epitopes in normal individuals. Furthermore, intense Alz-50 immunoreactivity has been recently described in the hypothalamus and spinal cord of rat and monkey. In the present study, we analysed the distribution pattern of Alz-50 immunostaining in the spinal cord of the adult rat. Using light microscopy, immunostained fibres and varicosities were detected mainly in laminae I-II, although some immunostaining could be detected in deeper laminae. At the ultrastructural level, immunostained axonal varicosities could be detected in lamina I and the outer two thirds of lamina II. The varicosities appeared either scalloped or dome-shaped and contained numerous agranular synaptic vesicles and a few dense-core vesicles. Most varicosities were presynaptic to dendrites. A few immunostained cell bodies and dendrites were also observed, but glial cells were never immunostained. Some ultrathin sections were processed for postembedding immunogold detection of calcitonin gene-related peptide and GABA immunoreactivities. Most of the varicosities which were immunoreactive for Alz-50 also showed calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity. In contrast, GABA immunoreactivity was never co-localized with Alz-50 immunoreactivity. These results indicate that, in the superficial dorsal horn, the epitope recognized by the Alz-50 antibody is located mainly, but not exclusively, in primary sensory fibres.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Multimedia tools and applications 2 (1996), S. 35-51 
    ISSN: 1573-7721
    Keywords: pictorial queries ; Gabor wavelets ; feature clustering ; texture classification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Recent technological advances have made it possible to process and store large amounts of image data. Perhaps the most impressive example is the accumulation of image data in scientific applications such as medical or satellite imagery. However, in order to realize their full potential, tools for efficient extraction of information and for intelligent searches in image databases need to be developed. This paper describes a new approach to image data retrieval which allows queries to be composed of local intensity patterns. The intensity pattern is converted into a feature representation of reduced dimensionality which can be used for searching similar-looking patterns in the database. This representation is obtained by filtering the pattern with a bank of scale and orientation selective filters modeled using Gabor functions. Experimental results are presented which illustrate that the proposed representation preserves the perceptual similarities, and provides a powerful tool for content-based image retrieval.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Antibody ; Environmental monitoring ; Functional assay ; Chemical warfare ; Extracellular potential ; Impedance ; Microelectrode ; Patterning ; Stem cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Biosensors incorporate a biological sensing element that converts a change in an immediate environment to signals conducive for processing. Biosensors have been implemented for a number of applications ranging from environmental pollutant detection to defense monitoring. Biosensors have two intriguing characteristics: (1) they have a naturally evolved selectivity to biological or biologically active analytes; and (2) biosensors have the capacity to respond to analytes in a physiologically relevant manner. In this paper, molecular biosensors, based on antibodies, enzymes, ion channels, or nucleic acids, are briefly reviewed. Moreover, cell-based biosensors are reviewed and discussed. Cell-based biosensors have been implemented using microorganisms, particularly for environmental monitoring of pollutants. Biosensors incorporating mammalian cells have a distinct advantage of responding in a manner that can offer insight into the physiological effect of an analyte. Several approaches for transduction of cellular signals are discussed; these approaches include measures of cell metabolism, impedance, intracellular potentials, and extracellular potentials. Among these approaches, networks of excitable cells cultured on microelectrode arrays are uniquely poised to provide rapid, functional classification of an analyte and ultimately constitute a potentially effective cell-based biosensor technology. Three challenges that constitute barriers to increased cell-based biosensor applications are presented: analytical methods, reproducibility, and cell sources. Possible future solutions to these challenges are discussed. © 1999 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC99: 8780-y, 0130Rr, 8717-d
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: X- and γ-rays instruments and techniques ; γ-rays ; Mössbauer effect ; other γ-ray spectroscopy ; Conference proceedings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary In the present work we report an investigation on cultures of the human osteosarcoma cell line «MG-63» and the human osteoblastic cell line «HOBIT». We have examined the combined effects of hematin and 14.4keV gamma-radiation from a Mössbauer source. Preliminary results seem to confirm the trend already observed for the bone marrow system. Different degrees of growth inhibition were observed when hematin alone and hematin plus gamma-rays were administered to the cultures. It was previously found that hematin has no toxic effects on normal cells up to a concentration of 10−4 M, but the same concentration produces various degrees of inhibition on cultures of tumor cells. While no significant effect could be attributed to irradiation alone, hematin plus irradiations show a larger inhibition than that expected for pure additive effects.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Materials testing ; Other topics in biophysics, medical physics and biomedical engineering
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary The effect of weight loss on the dimensional stability of some addition-polysiloxanes used as impression materials in dentistry is studied. We show that polymerization is not the only factor affecting the shrinkage of these materials. An explanation for the time-dependent weight function is given.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Direct energy conversion and energy storage ; Photodetectors and infrared detectors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary A method is given to calculate the maximum compositional gradient in single crystals, grown by unidirectional solidification, of binary or pseudobinary materials. The calculation is based on the data obtained from the phase diagrams. Compositional gradients of HgTe-CdTe and PbTe-SnTe systems along the growth axis are shown.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A complete yearly record (1988) of surface measurements is used to examine the atmospheric diurnal secondary circulations over the entire area of Hong Kong in conjunction with spatial and temporal variations of surface temperature, wind speed and rainfall. Evidence of atmospheric diurnal secondary circulations is found at 10 sites. The occurrence of a summer morning rainfall maximum over the coast results from the interaction of the large-scale summer monsoon and local mesoscale secondary circulations. The afternoon onshore secondary circulation accelerates the advection of warm, humid unstable air and, coupled with the upward orographic lifting, produces enhanced rainfall along windward mountain ridges. Dynamical and scaling considerations suggest that the blocking effect is negligible and the primary forcing mechanism is land-sea temperature difference, but terrain effects are also important. Although the secondary circulation system's strength and timing vary, the circulation behaves like a classic sea-land breeze circulation, complicated by superimposed mountain-valley breezes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Differential-difference inequalities ; uncertain systems ; neutral-type systems ; delay-independent stabilizability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we show that a sufficient condition for the delay-independent stabilizability of linear delay systems, which had been obtained by Amemiya et al., is also valid for linear neutral systems with measurable state variables by a new differential-difference inequality.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7446
    Keywords: chemical communication ; chromatography ; horse ; oestrus ; olfactory ; pheromone ; smell ; urine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ma, W. and Klemm, W.R., 1997. Variations of equine urinary volatile compounds during the oestrous cycle. Veterinary Research Communications, 21 (6), 437-446 Equine urine was analysed by capillary gas chromatography. The volatile profiles from oestrous and dioestrous samples were compared to establish any qualitative or quantitative difference that may have potential value in olfactory communication. Forty-five different volatile compounds were detected. Of these, 17 major compounds were common to all chromatograms. The chemical profile of oestrous urine was distinguished by the presence of a unique peak that was not present in dioestrous samples. Numerous constituents exhibited endocrine dependence: while the concentrations of seix peaks increased at oestrus, the concentrations of another five peaks decreased at the same time. Since oestrous urine, but not dioestrous urine, has been shown to elicit sexual behaviour in the stallion, the unique peak, together with the peaks that were present in increased concentrations at oestrus, may represent important chemical signals that stallions use to detect urinary ‘oestrous odours’. Statistical analyses also indicated that the relative ratios (normalized peak areas) of many peaks changed significantly across the oestrous cycle: the ratios increased in nine peaks, decreased in six peaks, and remained constant in two peaks at oestrus.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. In order to examine whether the viral population is affected by intramucosal transmission, we analyzed the viral genotypes first detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after intravaginal inoculation, before virus antibodies were detectable, and compared them with those in the inoculum. Three female cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravaginally and a fourth was inoculated intravenously with polyclonal simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVmac32H). The provirus genomes which first appeared in PBMC were sequenced in the V1 to V2 region of the SIV envelope gene. A comparison of the sequences obtained from each monkey revealed a homogeneous or heterogeneous viral population depending on the infection route. In the intravenously inoculated monkey, the viral population was heterogenous and was similar to that in the virus inoculum. On the other hand, in the intravaginally inoculated monkeys, single genotypes (in two monkeys) and one genotype with a slight variation (in one monkey) were found, but they were different from each other, having no characteristic sequences in the V1 to V2 region in common. None of the genotypes found in the PBMC were major genotypes in the virus inoculum. These results suggest that some selective mechanism, which differs among individuals, restricts the viral population during mucosal transmission.
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