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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Roots from Allium cepa L. (cv. Francesa) bulbs in which a maximum of two nucleoli per nucleus developed were selected for this study. Five rDNA clusters were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomal squashes (2n = 16) with a rhodamine-labelled wheat rDNA repeat. The rDNA clusters were located on four chromosomes: the largest cluster occurred on the small arm of a single homologue of the smallest pair 8. Its homologue showed two different small rDNA clusters, one near each telomere. The two homologues of the satellited chromosomes 6 also showed different rDNA contents, which were intermediate to those found in pair 8. The same five well-differentiated hybridization signals were observed in interphase cells that were inactive in transcription because they were in dormant roots, or in proliferating ones in which the synthesis of the large rRNA precursor was prevented. After multipolarizing agent was applied in anaphase followed by inhibition of cytokinesis, multinucleate autotetraploid cells were formed, which often contained more than four nucleoli. Thus, at least two of the three nucleolar organizer regions that consistently failed to develop a nucleolus in normal mononucleate cells were capable of developing nucleoli when segregated into different nuclei in multinucleate cells.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The transition-state geometries of retroene elimination reactions of propene from allylamines have been calculated by using the semiempirical AM1 method. The most favored geometry resembles a half chair or a flattened boat. It is also found that the transition states are of polar character and that the negative charge on the N atom decreases in the transition state; thus, the reaction is favored by electron donor substituents on the nitrogen atom, as observed experimentally. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: gas-phase thermolysis ; N-methyl-N-phenyl-tert-butylsulfenamide ; morpholinyl-tert-butylsulfenamide ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: N-Methyl-N-phenyl-tert-butylsulfenamide (MPSA) and morpholinyl-tert-butylsulfenamide (MOSA) were thermolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 340-390 °C and pressures of 7-13 Torr, using toluene as carrier gas, at residence times of 0.3-1.3 s. Isobutene was formed in 99% yield through first-order reactions having the following Arrhenius parameters (A,s-1, Ea, kJ mol-1): MPSA, log A  =  12.41 ± 0.02, Ea  =  158.8 ± 0.2; MOSA, log A  =  12.91 ± 0.22, Ea  =  159 ± 3. It is proposed that the elimination of isobutene takes place by unimolecular reaction mechanisms involving polar, four-center cyclic transition states, forming S-unsubstituted thiohydroxylamines as co-products. Thermochemical parameters, estimated by semiempirical AM1 calculations, are reported for the latter and for the parent molecules. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: N-cyanomethyl-N-ethyl aniline (CEAN) and N-cyanomethyl-N-ethyl-p-anisidine (CEPA) have been thermolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor, in the range of 510-560 °C, pressures of 7-11 torr and residence times of 0.5-0.9 s, using toluene as carrier gas. N-cyanomethyl-N-ethyl-p-nitroaniline (ECNA) was thermolyzed at 640°C and 13% conversion. Ethylene and HCN formed in 43% yield each as products from all three starting materials. Phenyl methanaldimine and p-anisidyl methanaldimine were also products of CEAN and CEPA, respectively. The consumption of CEAN and CEPA showed first-order kinetics for a three-fold increase of reactant inflow and initial conversions of up to 40 percent. The following Arrhenius equations were obtained from the rate coefficients for the production of ethylene: CEAN: k=1015.10±0.74 exp(-238±11 kJ/mol·RT); CEPA: k=1015.61±0.29 exp(-246±4 kJ/mol·RT). The results are explained by means of radical, nonchain thermolysis mechanisms. The thermochemistry of relevant reaction steps has been estimated from thermochemical parameters calculated by using the semiempirical AM1 method. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet: 30: 451-456, 1998
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Dially(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine and allyl(t-butylamino)phenylphosphine were pyrolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at 340-420°C/9-19 Torr, using toluene as carrier gas. The primary reaction products were propene, 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-phosphabutadiene, and 1-phenyl-2-t-butyliminophosphine. The phosphorus-containing products gave rise to [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition products, respectively. The consumption of these phosphines showed first-order kinetics, with the rate coefficients following the Arrhenius equations: Dially(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine: k(s-1) = 109.00±0.32 exp (- 122 ± 4 kJ/mol RT) Allyl(t-butylamino)phenylphosphine: k(s-1) = 109.04±0.25 exp (-113 ± 3 kJ/mol RT) The results support a six-center cyclic transition-state unimolecular elimination reaction mechanism for both reactants. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Diallyltetramethylpiperidinophosphine 1, diallyldiisopropylaminophosphine 2, and diallylmesitylphosphine 3 were pyrolyzed in a stirred flow reactor over the temperature range 400-450°C, using toluene as carrier gas, producing, in all cases, mixtures of phosphorus-containing products. The pyrolysis of 1 produced 1-tetramethylpiperidino-1-phosphabutadiene, in addition to a mixture of phosphines and polyphosphines. Compound 2 produced the azadiphosphole 4, the phosphinine 5, allylphosphine, and diisopropylaminophosphine as major phosphorated products. The pyrolysis of 3 produced a mixture of phosphines and polyphosphines. The complex mixture generated by the three diallylphosphines indicates the formation of free radicals during their pyrolyses. AM1 calculations on the transition state of an expected retroenetype propene elimination reaction showed that, due to the phosphaalkene character of the transition state, the structure of the latter is very rigid and sensitive to steric effects. Steric hindrance of the substituents on the phosphorus atom compels the molecule to distort the half-chair transition structure, causing a rise in the activation energy to values in the range of a homolytic P(SINGLE BOND)C bond dissociation energy. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The title amines were pyrolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at 380-510°C, pressures of 8-15 torr and residence times of 0.3-2.4 s, using toluene as carrier gas. The substrates with an allyl group yielded propene and iminonitriles as reaction products. HCN is formed by decomposition of the iminonitriles. The first-order rate coefficients for propene formation fit the Arrhenius equations Allyl cyanomethyl amine:\documentclass{article} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} $$ k({\rm s}^{ - {\rm 1}}) = 10^{13.29 \pm 0.35} {\rm exp(} - {\rm 189} \pm 5{\rm kJ/mol }RT{\rm)} $$ \end{document}Diallyl cyanomethyl amine:\documentclass{article} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} $$ k({\rm s}^{ - {\rm 1}}) = 10^{13.00 \pm 0.20} {\rm exp(} - {\rm 183} \pm 3{\rm kJ/mol }RT{\rm)} $$ \end{document} Diethyl cyanomethyl amine gave a 20:1 gas mixture of ehylene and ethane, plus HCN. The liquid product fraction contained mainly N-ethyl methanaldimine. The first-order rate coefficients for ethylene formation followed the Arrhenius equation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ k({\rm s}^{ - {\rm 1}}) = 10^{15.30 \pm 0.24} {\rm exp(} - {\rm 226} \pm 3{\rm kJ/mol }RT{\rm)} $$\end{document} Diethyl propargyl amine decomposed cleanly into allene and N-ethyl ethanaldimine. The first-order rate coefficients for allene formation fit the Arrhenius equation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ k({\rm s}^{ - {\rm 1}}) = 10^{12.84 \pm 0.30} {\rm exp(} - {\rm 168} \pm 4{\rm kJ/mol }RT{\rm)} $$\end{document} The results suggest that the above allyl and propargyl amines decompose unimolecularly by mechanisms involving six-center cyclic transition states. For diethyl cyanomethyl amine, a nonchain free radical mechanism is proposed. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The amide derivatives of t-butylsulfenic acid mentioned in the title have been thermolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 273-390°C and pressures of 7-15 torr, using toluene as carrier gas, at residence times of 0.4-2 s. Isobutene formed in 95-99% yields, through order one reactions, following the Arrhenius equations: N, N-dimethyl t-butylsulfenamide: $$k(s^{-1})=10^{14.45\pm 0.46}\exp(-175\pm 5 {\rm kJ/mol}\,{\bf RT})$$ 2,6-dimethylpiperidyl t-butylsulfenamide: $$k(s^{-1})=10^{14.38\pm 0.26}\exp(-161\pm 3 {\rm kJ/mol}\,{\bf RT})$$ N-t-butyl t-butylsulfenamide: $$k(s^{-1})=10^{14.75\pm 0.37}\exp(-184\pm 7 {\rm kJ/mol}\,{\bf RT})$$These thermolyses are considered to take place through unimolecular, four-center cyclic transition-state reaction mechanisms, giving rise to isobutene plus the corresponding S-unsubstituted thiohydroxylamines. The latter decompose outside the reactor at temperatures above -78°C forming free sulfur and dimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpiperidine, and t-butylamine, respectively. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: ---Various diallyl- and allylpropargylamines were pyrolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 330-500°C, pressures of 8-16 Torr and residence times of 0·4-2·4 s using toluene as carrier gas. The reaction products were propene, allene and aldimines. The allene to propene ratio changed considerably with the third substituent on the N atom. At conversions in the range 13-55%, the consumption of the amines showed first-order kinetics. The following Arrhenius parameters [A (s-1) and Ea (kJ mol-1)] were obtained from the rate coefficients: diallyl-tert-butylamine, log  A = 10·32 ± 0·12, Ea = 139 ± 2; diallylneopentylamine, log A = 12·87 ± 0·26, Ea = 168 ± 3; allylpropargyl-tert-butylamine, log A = 10·23 ± 0·18, Ea = 126 ± 2; allylpropargyltosylamine, log A = 13·05 ± 0.36, Ea = 197 ± 5; and allylpropargylphenylamine, log A = 12·10 ± 0·35, Ea = 162 ± 4. Polar, six-center cyclic transition states are suggested for the elimination of propene and allene, via non-concerted bond breaking-bond forming mechanisms. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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