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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; myocardial infarction ; angiotensin-converting enzyme ; genetics ; risk factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The deletion allele of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction, particularly in subjects judged to be “low-risk” by the criteria of lipid status and body mass index. In a prospective, matched case-control study, we have investigated the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for myocardial infarction in 173 newly-diagnosed British Caucasian non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taken from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study who subsequently developed myocardial infarction and 297 control subjects from the same study population matched for known cardiovascular risk factors including age at diagnosis of diabetes, gender, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and smoking habit. A trend towards increased risk conferred by homozygosity for the deletion allele was observed in cases (odds ratio 1.63, p=0.09). When the population was stratified according to the matched risk factors, the deletion allele was associated with myocardial infarction in those with low plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 3.67, p=0.002), or low triglyceride (odds ratio 3.14, p=0.005). The strongest association of the deletion allele with myocardial infarction was observed in subjects with both low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low triglyceride levels (odds ratio 9.0, p〈0.001). These results show that the deletion allele is a risk factor for myocardial infarction in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients who have a favourable lipid profile.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; myocardial infarction ; angiotensin-converting enzyme ; genetics ; risk factors.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The deletion allele of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction, particularly in subjects judged to be “low-risk” by the criteria of lipid status and body mass index. In a prospective, matched case-control study, we have investigated the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for myocardial infarction in 173 newly-diagnosed British Caucasian non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taken from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study who subsequently developed myocardial infarction and 297 control subjects from the same study population matched for known cardiovascular risk factors including age at diagnosis of diabetes, gender, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and smoking habit. A trend towards increased risk conferred by homozygosity for the deletion allele was observed in cases (odds ratio 1.63, p = 0.09). When the population was stratified according to the matched risk factors, the deletion allele was associated with myocardial infarction in those with low plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 3.67, p = 0.002), or low triglyceride (odds ratio 3.14, p = 0.005). The strongest association of the deletion allele with myocardial infarction was observed in subjects with both low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low triglyceride levels (odds ratio 9.0, p 〈 0.001). These results show that the deletion allele is a risk factor for myocardial infarction in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients who have a favourable lipid profile. [Diabetologia (1995) 38: 948–952]
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Diabetic retinopathy ; microaneurysms ; UKPDS ; Type II diabetes ; diabetes ; complications.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aims/hypothesis. To determine whether microaneurysms, in the absence of other lesions, have a predictive role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. Retinal photographs taken at diagnosis in patients participating in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, and thereafter at 3 yearly intervals, were assessed using a modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy grading system for lesions of diabetic retinopathy and end points of vitreous haemorrhage and photocoagulation. The number of microaneurysms in each eye was recorded. Results. The changes between diagnosis and later photographs were analysed in 2424 patients at 6 years, 1236 at 9 years and 414 at 12 years. Of the 2424 patients studied in the 6 year cohort 1809 had either no retinopathy or microaneurysms only at entry. In these patients the presence of microaneurysms alone and also the number of microaneurysms had a high predictive value for worsening retinopathy at 3, 6, 9, and 12 years after entry into the study (e. g. at 6 years χ 2 for trend = 75 on 1 df, p 〈 0.001). The predictive value of the presence or absence of microaneurysms and their number at 3 years from diagnosis and subsequent worsening retinopathy was similar to that at entry. Conclusion/interpretation. Microaneurysms are important lesions of diabetic retinopathy and even one or two microaneurysms in an eye should not be regarded as unimportant. [Diabetologia (1999) 42: 1107–1112]
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We measured the conversion efficiency of laser pulse energy into keV x rays from a variety of solid planar targets and a Xe gas puff target irradiated using a high average power Nd:glass slab laser capable of delivering 13 ns full width at half-maximum pulses at up to 20 J at 1.053 μm and 12 J at 0.53 μm. Targets were chosen to optimize emission in the 10–15 A(ring) wavelength band, including L-shell emission from materials with atomic numbers in the range Z=24–30 and M-shell emission from Xe (Z=54). With 1.053 μm a maximum conversion of 11% into 2π sr was measured from solid Xe targets. At 0.527 μm efficiencies of 12%–18%/(2π sr) were measured for all of the solid targets in the same wavelength band. The x-ray conversion efficiency from the Xe gas puff target was considerably lower, at about 3%/(2π sr) when irradiated with 1.053 μm. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 35 to 300 A(ring). These well-characterized sources have high peak brightness (GeV blackbody temperature) and narrow bandwidth making them ideal for x-ray imaging and interferometry. We will describe experiments which have used the yttrium neon-like x-ray laser operating at 155 A(ring) to probe plasmas at electron densities exceeding 4×1021 cm−3. The short pulse duration of this x-ray laser (∼150 ps) has made it possible to image directly driven thin foils with 1–2 μm spatial resolution. Advances in multilayer mirrors and beam splitters have now also made it possible to develop x-ray laser interferometers. We will describe initial experiments to probe plasmas relevant to ICF using x-ray laser interferometry. The progress in the development of short pulse x-ray lasers (∼30 ps) which are ultimately necessary to extend x-ray laser diagnostic techniques to higher densities will also be presented. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Microsatellites ; PCR ; Protoplast fusion ; Somatic hybrids ; Solanum tuberosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum cv 'Brodick' and S. sanctae-rosae were selected for having elevated chromosome numbers, intermediate morphology and potato cyst nematode resistance (derived from S. sanctae-rosae). DNA was extracted from this material and subjected to inter-SSR PCR directed by oligonucleotide primers comprising 5′-anchored di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs. PCR products were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualised by silver staining. An average of 30.31 bands per primer were generated in each parent and, on average, 8.19 of these bands were polymorphic. S. sanctae-rosae-specific bands were observed in the hybrid material as was evidence of deletions, substitutions and rearrangements. The relative merits of this technique for the analysis of somatic hybrid material are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Microcell ; Gametosomatic ; Spindle toxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The potential of gametic microprotoplasts as a tool for partial genome transfer in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated and a number of technical findings are reported. The phosphoric amide herbicide amiprophos-methyl was effective for microcell induction when applied at a concentration of 25 μm to excised anther material; however, neither whole buds nor isolated microspores responded to treatment. One selected clone responded well to spindle toxin treatment, and microcells were observed in 9% of tetrads, for which 4% (wt/vol) cellulase Onozuka R10 and 0.25% (wt/vol) driselase was found to be optimal for the release of protoplasts from the tetrads with conversion rates exceeding 40%. Technical problems identified at a number of crucial stages that may preclude the more widespread application of this technology are discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Surface and Interface Analysis 24 (1996), S. 657-661 
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The new bulk, melt-textured grown composite Nd0.5Y0.5Ba2Cu3O7-δ, which also forms large single crystals, has the standard high-Tc 123 orthorhombic structure when oxygenated and a very high critical current density in a magnetic field of 0.5 T. Both of these results were not anticipated, as the Nd and Y ions are significantly different in size, while the absence of Y211 and/or Nd422 precipitates within the 123 grains indicates that a new pinning mechanism is responsible for the highJc. A possible mechanism has been attributed in part to the partial substitution of Nd3+ in the Ba2+ site, but to further understand this material and to further optimize its processing route for application purposes, we have carried out an XPS study of its electronic structure using cleaved surfaces of single crystals. The data obtained are analysed and discussed in terms of that found for high-quality Re 123 single crystals where Re is either Nd or Y.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: cytochrome bf complex ; activated state ; hydrostatic pressure ; activation volume ; reaction volume
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of pressure on the kinetics of redox reactions in and around the chloroplast cytochrome bf complex were studied using a reconstituted system consisting of Photosystem I (PS I) particles, cytochrome bf complex and plastocyanin (PC), all derived from pea chloroplasts. There were no significant permanent effects of pressure in the range 0.1–191 MPa on the reaction kinetics, or on the shape of the absorption spectra of components studied. Discernable effects on rate-coefficients of increasing pressure were observed on the reduction of P700+ by PCI, on the reduction of PCII by ascorbate, and on the oxidation of decyl plastoquinol by the bf complex. The volumes of activation ΔV# were determined from the dependence of the rate-coefficient on pressure using: $$(\partial lnk/\partial P)_T = - \Delta V^\# /RT.$$ The volume of activation is the difference in partial molar volume between the activated state and the reactants for the redox reaction. Such data was sought to help define in detail those redox reactions and the corresponding activated states. For the reduction of P700+ by PCI and the oxidation of decyl plastoquinol by the bf complex, the rate coefficient decreased with increase in pressure, whilst for the reduction of PCII by ascorbate it increased. The corresponding volumes of activation were 9.6±0.6×10-6 m3 mol-1, 18±2×10-6 m3 mol-1 and -14±1×10-6 m3 mol-1, respectively. Much of the pressure-dependence of PCII reduction by ascorbate was ascribed to an increase in ascorbate ionisation with increase in pressure. There was little effect of pressure on the kinetics of oxidation of ferrocytochrome f by PCII, or on the equilibrium constant of the redox pair ferrocytochrome f/ferricytochrome f: PCII/PCI. Possible physical bases for these activation volumes are discussed, and they are compared with literature values.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5192
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two species of Clinostomum previously described from Australia, C. hornum from Botaurus poiciloptilus (Australian bittern) and Nycticorax caledonicus (Nankeen night heron) and C. australiense from Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian pelican), which have previously been synonymised with C. complanatum, are redescribed and recognised as valid species. In addition, C. complanatum is recorded from Egretta alba (large egret), E. garzetta (little egret), E. intermedia (plumed egret), N. caledonicus and Ardea novaehollandiae (white-faced heron). C. wilsoni n. sp. is described from E. intermedia from Queensland. C. wilsoni differs from the other three species in size and shape of the body and in the oral collar, oral sucker, intestinal caeca, caecal diverticula and position of testes. Taxonomic problems within the genus Clinostomum are discussed.
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