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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Cystitis ; Interstitial ; Refractory
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Interstitial cystitis is the most therapeutically frustrating condition of the urinary tract. The vast array of treatments available clearly indicates that none is particularly effective. As the majority of patients fail to experience a significant and prolonged response to standard treatments, new options are frequently being developed. These include the oral administration of cimetidine, the intravesical use of hyaluronic acid and BCG, and total cystectomy with the formation of a continent urinary diversion. Unfortunately, the acceptance of many new treatments is based on incomplete evaluation, and this has resulted in a confusing array of disparate alternatives. Effective and durable treatment will not be available until the nature of the disease is better understood and the mechanisms of action of current therapies are elucidated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Neurofilaments ; Phosphorylation ; Differentiation ; Immunocytochemistry ; Brain storage ; Fixation ; Microwave ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Neurofilaments, which are exclusively found in nerve cells, are one of the earliest recognizable features of the maturing nervous system. The differential distribution of neurofilament proteins in varying degrees of phosphorylation within a neuron provides the possibility of selectively demonstrating either somata and dendrites or axons. Non-phosphorylated neurofilaments typical of somata and dendrites can be visualized with the aid of monoclonal antibody SMI 311, whereas antibody SMI 312 is directed against highly phosphorylated axonal epitopes of neurofilaments. The maturation of neuronal types, the development of area-specific axonal networks, and the gradients of maturation can thus be demonstrated. Optimal immunostaining with SMI 311 and SMI 312 is achieved when specimens are fixed in a mixture of paraformaldehyde and picric acid for up to 3 days and sections are incubated free-floating. Neurons, with their dendritic domains immunostained by SMI 311 in a Golgi-like manner, can be completely visualized in relatively thick sections. The limitations of Golgi-preparations, such as glia-labeling, artifacts, and the staining of only a small non-representative percentage of existing neurons, are not apparent in SMI preparations, which additionally provide the possibility of selectively staining axonal networks. The results achieved in normal fetal brain provide the basis for studies of developmental disturbances.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a crossed electron beam-atomic beam apparatus which utilizes a pulsed electron gun and field free drift tube to obtain time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of electrons scattered from atoms and molecules. This apparatus was constructed for the purpose of obtaining inelastic-to-elastic differential cross-section (DCS) ratios in the energy range extending from threshold to several eV above the threshold of the inelastic channel. The TOF approach eliminates the need for complicated calibration procedures required when using conventional electrostatic electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) at these low energies. The characteristics of the apparatus will be given, along with representative TOF spectra from carbon monoxide. From those spectra we obtained DCS ratios at 90° scattering angle for excitation of the a3Π state of CO, in the impact energy range of 6–15 eV. These ratios were measured with uncertainties as small as ±4%, which represents a substantial improvement over previous measurements in this energy range. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the TOF technique to measure DCS ratios which in turn can serve as secondary standards to normalize other inelastic DCSs obtained from measurements with EELS. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Advances in magnetoresistive materials have recently enabled magnetic recording heads to achieve higher levels of performance. This article describes why higher signal outputs are necessary for improvements to be made in areal density. The requirements for recording at an areal density of 16 Mb/mm2 (10 Gb/in.2) are discussed with regards to both the channel and the head design. Increased output from new multilayer magnetoresistive materials is required to counteract the decrease in output due to the reduction in the size of the head geometry. An areal density of 16 Mb/mm2 is shown to be feasible with spin valve recording heads using materials with magnetoresistance ratios of 10%. Fabrication issues relating to the manufacturing of these materials are shown to be more stringent than previously required. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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