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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Bread wheat ; Grain protein content ; Microsatellite ; STMS ; QTL analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  This study was undertaken with a view to tag gene(s) controlling grain protein content (GPC) using molecular markers in bread wheat. For this purpose, the genotype PH132 with high protein content (13.5%) was crossed with genotype WL711 with significantly lower protein content (9.7%), and 100 RILs were derived. These RILs showed normal distribution for protein content. The parental genotypes were analysed with 232 STMS primer pairs for detection of polymorphism. Of these, 167 primer pairs gave scorable amplification products, and 57 detected polymorphism between the parents. Using each of these 57 primer pairs, we carried out bulked segregant analysis on RILs representing the two extremes of the distribution. One primer pair for the locus wmc41 showed association with protein content. This was further confirmed through selective genotyping. The co-segregation data on the molecular marker (wmc41) and protein content on 100 RILs was analysed by means of a single-marker linear regression approach. Significant regression suggested linkage between wmc41 and a QTL (designated as QGpc.ccsu-2D.) for protein content. The results showed that this marker-linked QTL accounted for 18.73% of the variation for protein content between the parents. The marker has been located on chromosome arm 2DL using nulli-tetrasomic lines and two ditelocentric stocks for chromosome 2D.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Chickpea ; Oligonucleotide fingerprinting ; Simple-sequence repeats ; Genetic diversity ; DNA polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The abundance and polymorphism of 38 different simple-sequence repeat motifs was studied in four accessions of cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by in-gel hybridization of synthetic oligonucleotides to genomic DNA digested with 14 different restriction enzymes. Among 38 probes tested, 35 yielded detectable hybridization signals. The abundance and level of polymorphism of the target sequences varied considerably. The probes fell into three broad categories: (1) probes yielding distinct, polymorphic banding patterns; (2) probes yielding distinct, monomorphic banding patterns, and (3) probes yielding blurred patterns, or diffused bands superimposed on a high in lane background. No obvious correlation existed between abundance, fingerprint quality, and the sequence characteristics of a particular motif. Digestion with methyl-sensitive enzymes revealed that simple-sequence motifs are enriched in highly methylated genomic regions. The high level of intraspecific polymorphism detected by oligonucleotide fingerprinting suggests the suitability of simple-sequence repeat probes as molecular markers for genome mapping.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Pyrites ; Pyrite oxidation ; Gypsum Alkali soil ; Reclamation ; Soluble sulfur Welland rice ; Wheat ; Thiobacillus thioxidans ; Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract We evaluated the effect of agricultural-grade (AG) pyrites (total sulfur 22%) varying in water-soluble sulfur (1–8%) and gypsum on the soil properties and yields of rice and wheat in alkali soils during the years 1993–1995 at the Gudha and Saraswati experimental farms at the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India. Gypsum and pyrites were applied on the basis of gypsum requirement (GR) of the soils. Results showed that the efficiency of AG pyrites in decreasing soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and increasing crop yields was dependent on their water-soluble sulfur content at the time of application to the field. Pyrites with 5.5% and 8% soluble sulfur were as effective as gypsum. The freshly mined pyrite (water-soluble S 1%) was found to be inefficient in reclaiming alkali soils. We also explored the possibility of increasing the water-soluble sulfur content of pyrite by optimizing its storage conditions. When pyrite (1% water-soluble S) was stored under moist conditions by sprinkling water over the bags under a rain shelter, there was an enrichment of indigenous iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of pyrite, and the water-soluble sulfur increased to 5% within a period of 6 months. However no such increase occurred when pyrite was stored dry. We conclude that the soluble sulfur content of pyrite increased during its storage under moist conditions and should be between 6% and 8% at the time of its application to the field.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Nodulation ; Competitiveness ; Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) ; lacZ fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract We constructed lacZ fusions in Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) by random Tn5-lacZ mutagenesis. The lacZ+ fusants formed blue colonies on a Rhizobial minimal medium containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) fusant HSL-2 was identified in nodules and soil in a mixed population on the basis of the lacZ+ phenotype. Nodule occupancy of inoculated Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) HSL-2 (lacZ+) was assessed by directly streaking the nodule sap on X-gal plates. This method revealed differences between rhizobia carrying identical antibiotic markers. The rhizobial population in soil was estimated by direct plate counts using a medium containing X-gal. Introduction of lacZ into the Rhizobium sp. thus provided a simple and direct method for identifying strains from nodules and soil.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Nodulation ; Competitiveness ; Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) ; lacZ fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract We constructed lacZ fusions in Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) by random Tn5-lacZ mutagenesis. The lacZ+ fusants formed blue colonies on a Rhizobial minimal medium containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) fusant HSL-2 was identified in nodules and soil in a mixed population on the basis of the lacZ+ phenotype. Nodule occupancy of inoculated Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) HSL-2 (lacZ+) was assessed by directly streaking the nodule sap on X-gal plates. This method revealed differences between rhizobia carrying identical antibiotic markers. The rhizobial population in soil was estimated by direct plate counts using a medium containing X-gal. Introduction of lacZ into the Rhizobium sp. thus provided a simple and direct method for identifying strains from nodules and soil.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Pyrites ; Pyrite oxidation ; Gypsum ; Alkali soil ; Reclamation ; Soluble sulfur ; Wetland rice ; Wheat ; Thiobacillus thioxidans ; Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract We evaluated the effect of agricultural-grade (AG) pyrites (total sulfur 22%) varying in water-soluble sulfur (1–8%) and gypsum on the soil properties and yields of rice and wheat in alkali soils during the years 1993–1995 at the Gudha and Saraswati experimental farms at the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India. Gypsum and pyrites were applied on the basis of gypsum requirement (GR) of the soils. Results showed that the efficiency of AG pyrites in decreasing soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and increasing crop yields was dependent on their water-soluble sulfur content at the time of application to the field. Pyrites with 5.5% and 8% soluble sulfur were as effective as gypsum. The freshly mined pyrite (water-soluble S 1%) was found to be inefficient in reclaiming alkali soils. We also explored the possibility of increasing the water-soluble sulfur content of pyrite by optimizing its storage conditions. When pyrite (1% water-soluble S) was stored under moist conditions by sprinkling water over the bags under a rain shelter, there was an enrichment of indigenous iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of pyrite, and the water-soluble sulfur increased to 5% within a period of 6 months. However no such increase occurred when pyrite was stored dry. We conclude that the soluble sulfur content of pyrite increased during its storage under moist conditions and should be between 6% and 8% at the time of its application to the field.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Body mass index ; Kuwait ; Osteoarthritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-nine Kuwaiti patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Primary knee OA was seen in 65 (94.2%) patients. The mean age of this group was 53.18 years with a range of 39–97 years. The female to male ratio was 2.82∶1. OA was bilateral in 84.62% and predominantly involved the medial tibiofemoral joint. According to Kellgren's grading of knee OA, grade 1 changes were present in 40.0%, grade 2 in 32.5%, grade 3 in 22.5% and grade 4 in 5.0%. Grade I obesity was seen in 13%, grade II in 64% and grade III in 23% of patients. Generalised primary nodular OA was seen in only four patients, all of whom were women. Primary OA of the hip joint and chondrocalcinosis were conspicuous by their absence.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Chickpea ; Sequence-tagged microsatellite markers ; Primer sequences ; Genome mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A size-selected genomic library comprising 280,000 colonies and representing ≈18% of the chickpea genome, was screened for (GA)n, (GAA)n and (TAA)n microsatellite-containing clones, of which 389 were sequenced. The majority (∼75%) contained perfect repeats; interrupted, interrupted compound and compound repeats were only present in 6%–9% of cases. (TAA)-microsatellites contained the longest repeats, with unit numbers from 9 to 131. For 218 loci primers could be designed and used for the detection of microsatellite length polymorphisms in six chickpea breeding cultivars, as well as in C. reticulatum and C. echinospermum, wild, intercrossable relatives of chickpea. A total of 174 primer pairs gave interpretable banding patterns, 137 (79%) of which revealed at least two alleles on native polyacrylamide gels. A total of 120 sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers were genetically mapped in 90 recombinant inbred lines from an inter-species cross between C. reticulatum and the chickpea cultivar ICC 4958. Markers could be arranged in 11 linkage groups (at a LOD score of 4) covering 613 cM. Clustering as well as random distribution of loci was observed. Segregation of 46 markers (39%) deviated significantly (P ≥ 0.05) from the expected 1:1 ratio. The majority of these loci (73%) were located in three distinct regions of the genome. The present STMS marker map represents the most advanced co-dominant DNA marker map of the chickpea genome.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant and crippling condition of the oral mucous membrane, was studied to identify its relationship to various chewing and smoking habits. Two hundred and thirty-six consecutive cases of OSF were compared with 221 control subjects matched for age, sex and socio-economic conditions. It was found that chewing of areca nut/quid or pan masala (acommercial preparation of areca nuts, lime, catechu and undisclosed colouring, flavouring and sweetening agents) was directly related to OSF. Also, pan masala was chewed by a comparatively younger age group and was associated with OSF changes earlier than areca nut/quid chewing. However, chewing or smoking tobacco with various other chewing habits did not increase the risk of developing OSF. It was also found that frequency of chewing rather than the total duration of the habit was directly correlated to OSF.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) ; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) ; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) ; nonlinear optical (NLO) properties ; second harmonic generation (SHG) ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We report the synthesis and characterization of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) exhibiting nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The network consists of aliphatic polycarbonate urethane (PCU) and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-N,N-disubstituted urea), with a nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore incorporated into N,N-disubstituted urea. The full IPNs have only one Tg, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, suggest a single phase morphology. The thin films of IPNs are transparent and the unpoled samples produced second harmonic generation (SHG) signals at room temperature. This result indicates that the NLO chromophore is oriented noncentrosymmetrically during the IPN formation process and is tightly held between the permanent entanglements of the two component networks of the IPN. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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