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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polycrystalline SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) ferroelectric thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by the metalorganic decomposition technique. The SBT crystalline phase appeared at 550 °C, completely crystallized at 650 °C, and little pyrochlore phase was observed in the x-ray diffraction patterns. The grains, which are rodlike, increased from about 50 to 200 nm in diameter with increasing annealing temperature from 550 to 800 °C. Typically, the SBT thin film annealed at 750 °C had Pr=8.8 μC/cm2 and Ec=29.3 kV/cm at applied voltage of 5 V, and the hysteresis loops become saturated with an increase of the maximum applied voltage. The fatigue and retention characteristics of SBT thin films dependence on applied voltage and frequency have also been investigated. It revealed that the fatigue endurance at a higher frequency and a higher applied voltage could be better than that at a lower frequency and a lower applied voltage. The retention properties of the SBT thin films are quite good over a range of 1–10 000 S, and the influence of applied voltage and bias voltage is not obvious. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 73 (1998), S. 3674-3676 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polycrystalline SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) ferroelectric thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by metalorganic decomposition. Electric measurements demonstrate that the polarization decay increases with increasing the write/read voltage within the first second. This could be attributed to the depolarization fields, which increases with increasing the retained polarization. However, we found that the polarization loss is insignificant with different write/read voltages over a range of 1–30 000 S. Furthermore, experiment indicates that there is weak pinning of domain walls existing in SBT, which plays an important role for SBT thin film over a range of 1–30 000 S with a low write/read voltage. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Polycrystalline SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) ferroelectric thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by metalorganic decomposition. Electric measurements demonstrate that fatigue increases with decreasing switching voltage and frequency, and the suppressed polarization caused at a lower switching voltage can be recovered by switching at a higher voltage. This suggests that the domain walls of SBT thin films are weakly pinned and easily depinned by a higher external field. The polarization of SBT thin films annealed in air shows more degradation than that annealed in oxygen, which indicates that the oxygen vacancy also plays an important role in fatigue behavior of SBT thin films. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 72 (1998), S. 683-685 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present a type of strained semiconductor quantum-well structure that exhibits bias-independent heavy- and light-hole degeneracy. This effect is achieved by inserting thin layers of highly strained material in an unstrained quantum well. By adjusting the thickness and the position of the highly tensile strained layers, the quantum confined Stark effect for the heavy and light holes can be engineered separately to control the bias dependent polarization properties. Experimental results on such a structure agree well with the theory. These unique bias-dependent polarization properties have important applications in optoelectronic devices when specific polarization properties are required. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 3452-3454 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Photoreflectance measurements have been performed on a δ-doped GaAs homojunction. Two Franz–Keldysh oscillation features originating from two different regions (a buffer layer and a top layer) of the structure superimpose with each other in the photoreflectance spectrum. By properly selecting the reference phase, one of the features can be suppressed, thus enabling us to determine the electric fields from the two regions unambiguously. The electric field in the top layer is 3.5±0.2×105 V/cm, which is in good agreement with theoretical calculation. The electric field in the buffer layer is 1.2±0.1×104 V/cm. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have designed and studied a new type of strained semiconductor quantum well structure, variable-strain quantum well. The strain within the quantum well is graded from compressive to tensile in order to obtain mutually opposing slopes for the heavy- and light-hole band edges, causing the heavy and light holes to experience opposite fields created by the same strain. A unique bias controlled crossover with a simultaneous red and blue quantum confined Stark shift for the heavy- and light-hole transitions, respectively, has been observed by electroreflectance spectra. This results in a bias controlled change of the polarization properties and the transition energies suitable for polarization controllable photonic devices. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 84 (1998), S. 6519-6522 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A rate equation model with spatial hole-burning effect is built to calculate the Q-switch Nd:YAlO3(Nd:YAP) simultaneous dual wavelength laser. We find that 1341.4 and 1079.5 nm lasers can be simultaneously generated in a linear cavity by controlling the output coupling rates of the two coherent radiations. In contrast, a Y cavity and devices to control relative Q-switch delay were necessary for the dual wavelength Nd:YAG laser in previous work. Also with this model, some optimum parameters' relationships to pump energy are investigated. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 78 (1995), S. 2151-2176 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In the presence of an electric field, the dielectric constant of a semiconductor exhibits Franz–Keldysh oscillations (FKO), which can be detected by modulated reflectance. Although it could be a powerful and simple method to study the electric fields/charge distributions in various semiconductor structures, in the past it has proven to be more complex. This is due to nonuniform fields and impurity induced broadening, which reduce the number of detectible Franz–Keldysh oscillations, and introduce uncertainties into the measurement. In 1989, a new structure, surface–undoped–doped (s-i-n+/s-i-p+) was developed, which allows the observation of a large number of FKOs and, hence, permitting accurate determination of electric fields. We present a review of the work on measuring electric fields in semiconductors with a particular emphasis on microstructures using the specialized layer sequence. We first discuss the general theory of modulation techniques dwelling on the approximations and their relevance. The case of uniform field, obtained with this specialized structure as well as that of the nonuniform field, are addressed. The various experimental techniques are also briefly reviewed. We then summarize the various experimental results obtained in the last few years using these special structures and FKOs and find that, even in this short period, good use has been made of the technique and the structure. This is followed by a brief review of the work on nonuniform fields. In this case, the work on actual device structures has significant technological implications. Important issues such as metallization and processing, the effects of surface treatment and thermal annealing, Schottky barrier heights of different metals, piezoelectric fields in (111) grown strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells, and Fermi level in low-temperature grown GaAs have been studied using this structure. This structure has also been used to study the dynamics of photomodulation, revealing the nature of the cw photoreflectance. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels v=2 to v=4 of the X 2Σg+ ground state of the C2− molecular ion have been experimentally investigated by photodetachment in a storage ring. The lifetime of the v=3 level was 0.32±0.02 s for 12C12C−, and 0.22±0.02 s for 12C13C−. For both ions, the lower limit for the v=2 lifetime was 5 s, and the upper limit for the v=4 level was ∼100 ms. The measured lifetime for v=3 of 12C12C− is a factor of 4 smaller than found in a calculation [P. Rosmus and H. Werner, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5085 (1984)]. The results point to the existence of at least one bound vibrational level of the lowest 4Σu+ state. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 6647-6651 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In consideration of the hole-burning effects, based on the single longitudinal mode rate equation, the operating condition of continuous wave simultaneous dual wavelength laser (SDWL) in neodymium host crystals is studied. The relationship between the operating threshold of SDWL and thresholds of the single wavelength laser for both wavelengths is ascertained. The effect of multilongitudinal modes on the operation result has been discussed qualitatively. Taking Nd:YAlO3 crystal as an example, the experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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