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  • 1995-1999  (9)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 31 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Xer site-specific recombination at the Escherichia coli chromosomal site dif converts chromosomal dimers to monomers, thereby allowing chromosome segregation during cell division. dif is located in the replication terminus region and binds the E. coli site-specific recombinases EcoXerC and EcoXerD. The Haemophilus influenzae Xer homologues, HinXerC and HinXerD, bind E. coli dif and exchange strands of dif Holliday junctions in vitro. Supercoiled dif sites are not recombined by EcoXerC and EcoXerD in vitro, possibly as a consequence of a regulatory process, which ensures that in vivo recombination at dif is confined to cells that can initiate cell division and contain dimeric chromosomes. In contrast, the combined action of HinXerC and EcoXerD supports in vitro recombination between supercoiled dif sites, thereby overcoming the barrier to dif recombination exhibited by EcoXerC and EcoXerD. The recombination products are catenated and knotted molecules, consistent with recombination occurring within synaptic complexes that have entrapped variable numbers of negative supercoils. Use of catalytically inactive recombinases provides support for a recombination pathway in which HinXerC-mediated strand exchange between directly repeated duplex dif sites generates a Holliday junction intermediate that is resolved by EcoXerD to catenated products. These can undergo a second recombination reaction to generate odd-noded knots.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Two recombinases, XerC and XerD, act at the recombination sites psi and cer in plasmids pSC101 and ColE1 respectively. Recombination at these sites maintains the plasmids in a monomeric state and helps to promote stable plasmid inheritance. The accessory protein PepA acts at both psi and cer to ensure that only intramolecular recombination takes place. An additional accessory protein, ArgR, is required for recombination at cer but not at psi. Here, we demonstrate that the ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli, which mediates adaptation to anaerobic growth conditions, is required for efficient recombination in vivo at psi. Phosphorylated ArcA binds to psi in vitro and increases the efficiency of recombination at this site. Binding of ArcA to psi may contribute to the formation of a higher order synaptic complex between a pair of psi sites, thus helping to ensure that recombination is intramolecular.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 32 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Studies of the site-specific recombinase Cre suggest a key role for interactions between the C-terminus of the protein and a region located about 30 residues from the C-terminus in linking in a cyclical manner the four recombinase monomers present in a recombination complex, and in controlling the catalytic activity of each monomer. By extrapolating the Cre DNA recombinase structure to the related site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD, it is predicted that the extreme C-termini of XerC and XerD interact with α-helix M in XerD and the equivalent region of XerC respectively. Consequently, XerC and XerD recombinases deleted for C-terminal residues, and mutated XerD proteins containing single amino acid substitutions in αM or in the C-terminal residues were analysed. Deletion of C-terminal residues of XerD has no measurable effect on co-operative interactions with XerC in DNA-binding assays to the recombination site dif, whereas deletion of 5 or 10 residues of XerC reduces co-operativity with XerD some 20-fold. Co-operative interactions between pairs of truncated proteins during dif DNA binding are reduced 20- to 30-fold. All of the XerD mutants, except one, were catalytically proficient in vitro; nevertheless, many failed to mediate a recombination reaction on supercoiled plasmid in vivo or in vitro, implying that the ability to form a productive recombination complex and/or mediate a controlled recombination reaction is impaired.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: XerC and XerD are related 298-amino-acid site-specific recombinases, each of which is responsible for the exchange of one pair of strands in Xer recombination. Both recombinases encode functions necessary for sequence-specific DNA-binding, co-operative XerC/D interactions, synapsis and catalysis. These functions were related to the primary amino acid sequence by constructing and analysing internal and C-terminal XerD deletions. An XerD derivative containing residues 1–233 was proficient in specific DNA binding, but did not interact co-operatively with XerC. Deletion of a further five C-terminal amino acids abolished binding to DNA. Proteins deleted for residues 32–88 and for residues 145–159 were deficient in DNA binding. Deletion of residues 244–281, a region containing amino acids necessary for catalysis, gave a protein that bound to DNA. An XerD derivative containing residues 1–268 retained co-operative interactions with XerC; nevertheless, it did not support XerC strand exchange and was defective in XerD catalysis. Residues 1–283 retain a functional catalytic active site, though a protein lacking the five C-terminal amino acids was still unable to mediate normal in vivo recombination, indicating that these residues are needed for a function that is not directly related to DNA binding or catalysis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Escherichia coli arginine repressor (ArgR) controls expression of the arginine biosynthetic genes and acts as an accessory protein in Xer site-specific recombination at cer and related plasmid recombination sites. The hexameric wild-type protein shows L-arginine-dependent DNA binding. In this work, ArgR mutants that are defective in trimer–trimer interactions and bind DNA as trimers in an L-arginine-independent manner are isolated and characterized. Whereas the wild-type ArgR hexamer exhibits high-affinity binding to two repeated ARG boxes separated by 3 bp (each ARG box containing two identical dyad symmetrical 9 bp half-sites), the trimeric mutants bind to and footprint three adjacent half-sites of this ‘idealized’ substrate. Trimeric ArgR is impaired in its ability to repress the arginine biosynthetic genes and in Xer site-specific recombination. In the absence of L-arginine, residual wild-type ArgR-binding occurs as trimers. The binding of an N-terminal 77-amino-acid DNA-binding domain to idealized ARG boxes is also characterized.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Xer site-specific recombination functions in the stable inheritance of circular plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. Two related recombinases, XerC and XerD, mediate this recombination, which ‘undoes’ the potential damage of homologous recombination. Xer recombination on natural plasmid sites is preferentially intramolecular, converting plasmid multimers to monomers. In contrast, recombination at the Escherichia coli recombination site, dif, occurs both intermolecularly and intramolecularly, at least when dif is inserted into a multicopy plasmid. Here the DNA sequence features of a family of core recombination sites in which the XerC- and XerD-binding sites, which are separated by 6 bp, were analysed in order to ascertain what determines whether recombination will be preferentially intramolecular, or will occur both within and between molecules. Sequence changes in either the XerC- or XerD-binding site can alter the recombination outcome. Preferential intramolecular recombination between a pair of recombination sites requires additional accessory DNA sequences and accessory recombination proteins and is correlated with reduced affinities of recombinase binding to recombination core sites, reduced XerC-mediated cleavage in vitro, and an apparent increased overall bending in recombinase–core-site complexes.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 20 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In bacteria, two categories of specialised recombination promote a variety of DNA rearrangements. Transposition is the process by which genetic elements move between different locations of the genome, whereas site-specific recombination is a reaction in which DNA strands are broken and exchanged at precise positions of two target DNA loci to achieve determined biological function. Both types of recombination are represented by diverse genetic systems which generally encode their own recombination enzymes. These enzymes, generically called transposases and site-specific recombinases, can be grouped into several families on the basis of amino acid sequence similarities, which, in some cases, are limited to a signature of a few residues involved in catalysis. The well characterised site-specific recombinases are found to belong to two distinct groups, whereas the transposases form a large super-family of enzymes encompassing recombinases from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In spite of important differences in the catalytic mechanisms used by these three classes of enzymes to cut and rejoin DNA molecules, similar strategies are used to coordinate the biochemical steps of the recombination reaction and to control its outcome. This review summarises our current understanding of transposition and site-specific recombination, attempting to illustrate how relatively conserved DNA cut-and-paste mechanisms can be used to bring about a variety of complex DNA rearrangements.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 34 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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