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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 6 (1996), S. S18 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Lumbar motoneurons ; Immunohistochemistry ; Light microscopy ; GABA and glycine colocalization ; Stereology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glycine-immunoreactive (IR) terminal-like structures apposed to somatic and dendritic membrane of lumbar α-motoneurons in column 2 was examined in 1- and 3-week-old kittens and in the adult cat. This quantitative study was carried out using a postembedding technique on semithin sections and a stereological method, the disector. Analysis of immunoreactive terminals showed that the percentages of GABA-IR and glycine-IR terminals (these populations include terminals containing both GABA and glycine) apposed to somatic and proximal dendritic compartments of α-motoneurons are almost the same in kittens, while in the adult glycinergic innervation becomes predominant. This change results from: (1) the decrease in numbers of GABA-IR terminals contacting the somatic compartment between 3 weeks and adult stage, while the numbers of glycine-IR terminals show no significant changes after birth and the numbers of terminals containing both neurotransmitters (GABA-IR+glycine-IR) present transient changes and (2) the postnatal increase in the dendritic compartment, in numbers of GABA-IR, glycine-IR and GABA-IR+glycine-IR terminals; the increase being larger for glycine-IR terminals. Furthermore, using a postembedding immunogold technique, observations by electron microscopy showed that GABA-IR P boutons apposed to M boutons can already be identified at 1 week after birth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Triticum aestivum ; Wheat ; Morphophysiological traits ; Inheritance ; Flag-leaf characters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Flag-leaf angle (FLAngle), flag-leaf area (FLarea) and flag-leaf area duration (FLADuration) are important traits in determining yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Genetic studies on these traits are very few. The objective of this study was to determine the gene action controlling those traits in four wheat crosses. Six generations were available for each cross: parents (P1 and P2), F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC(F1×P1) and BC(F1×P2)). The joint scaling test described by Mather and Jinks was used to test goodness of fit to eight genetic models. Models including additivity, dominance and interallelic interactions best fitted the data for the three traits and the four crosses. Additive effects were most prevalent for FLAngle. They were also significant for FLArea and FLADuration. Dominance and epistatic gene action were also found, but the degree and direction was both trait- and genotype-specific. Heritabilities values were intermediate. Genetic progress, although slow, can be expected when selecting for these traits; however, selection would be most effective if delayed to later generations because of dominance and epistatic effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 78.47; 72.15.Lh; 36.40; 42.65.Ky
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Glioblastoma ; p16 ; p15 ; p14ARF ; Tetracycline-controlled operator
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Homozygous chromosome 9p deletions in gliomas commonly include the CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes, which code for the structurally highly homologous cdk inhibitors/tumor suppressors p16 and p15, respectively. Alternative splicing of the CDKN2A gene results in the expression of p14ARF. Interestingly, not only p16 and p15, but also the structurally unrelated p14ARF appear to function as negative cell cycle regulators. Concerted inactivation of p16, p15 and p14ARF could be demonstrated in seven of nine glioblastoma cell lines. Strong suppression of tumorigenicity after transfection with p16 and p15 alone or in combination was seen in cell lines containing neither endogenous p16 nor p15 but functional pRB. Significantly weaker growth suppression was observed in tumors either retaining expression of both p16 and p15 or p15 only. p14ARF proved to be a potent tumor suppressor in the presence of wild-type p53, while mutant p53 substantially reduced growth inhibition by p14ARF. No differences between p16 and p15 effects could be observed, suggesting a largely overlapping function of p16 and p15. To facilitate further research into p16/p15 effects, three cell lines with conditional, tetracycline-controlled p16 expression were established. Reversible growth suppression mediated by p16 was observed in these models. Combined inactivation of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, i.e., loss of both p16 and p15 as well as p14ARF, results in disruption of two major growth control pathways involving pRB and p53 in malignant gliomas. Therefore, homozygous co-deletions of CDKN2A and CDKN2B rather than mutations targeting individual transcripts are frequently selected for in these tumors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 61 (1995), S. 89-93 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 61.70 ; 72.20 ; 78.20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In LiNbO3:Fe,Me crystals (Me = K, Mg, Zn) elementary holograms are recorded and erased with frequency-doubled, ordinarily polarized pulses of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. At high light intensities (I 〉 109 Wm−2) holographic sensitivities and saturation values of refractive index changes grow with increasing intensity and a contribution to photo-conductivity appears increasing quadratically withI. The intensity-dependent parts of the holographic quantities are diminished by increasing the lithium content of the samples or by doping the crystals with magnesium or zinc. Experimental results can be described by a two-center charge transport model, which is the Fe2+/3+ model supplemented by shallow traps, namely niobium ions occupying lithium sites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The transdermal nicotine patch has proved an effective aid to smoking cessation. The ease of securing good compliance gives it a potential advantage over nicotine gum as an adjunct to brief advice and support in primary care settings where the major public health impact is obtained. In a preliminary report of half the sample of a randomized placebo controlled trial, we showed the patch to be effective in a general practice setting. We report here the definitive results of the full sample, including dose effects, predictors of outcome and other issues of theoretical and practical interest. A total of 1200 heavy smokers (≥ 15 per day), attending 30 general practices in 15 English counties received brief GP advice, a booklet and 16 hours per day patch treatment for 18 weeks. Dose increase and abrupt vs. gradual reduction of patch dosage were also randomised and follow-ups conducted at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Outcome was measured by self-reported complete abstinence from week 3 to 52 with biochemical validation at all follow-up points. Nicotine patch treatment doubled the rate of continuous abstinence up to 1 year (nicotine 9.6%, placebo 4.8%, p 〈 0.01); it most likely worked by reducing withdrawal symptoms. It enhanced cessation during the first week and reduced relapse during the second week. The dose increase after week 1 produced no sustained increase in cessation. Gradual reduction was no better at preventing relapse than abrupt withdrawal of patches after week 12. Whether relapse would have increased by ending treatment at some point between weeks 3 and 12 was not tested. Although pre-treatment dependence on cigarettes was prognostic of failure, the patches were equally helpful to both highly and less dependent smokers. Patches were particularly helpful to smokers with pre-treatment subclinical dysthymic symptoms. All but one of the 96 subjects eventually achieving long-term abstinence in the study quit during the first week of cessation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉1There is considerable in vitro evidence that, at high concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) acts directly on pre-constricted blood vessels to cause vasorelaxation. Previously, we have seen vasoconstriction rather than vasodilatation in conscious dogs at physiological levels of the peptide. It is possible that the low resting vascular tone in our conscious, unstressed animals prevented the manifestation of the relaxant properties of ANP in vivo.2In the present study in conscious, instrumented dogs, we studied the mesenteric vascular responses to 10 min infusions of ANP (10, 25, 50 and 100ng/kg per min, i.v.) when resting vascular tone was enhanced with a continuous infusion of AVP (75 pg/kg per min, i.v.) and compared these with responses in the normal condition (no added AVP).3Mesenteric vascular resistance was increased by ANP (10, 25, 50 and 100ng/kg per min) by 9±2, 20±6, 29±7 and 32±9%, respectively. Increased resting vascular tone did not alter the mesenteric vasoconstrictor response to ANP. Thus, the discrepancy between in vitro (vasorelaxation) and in vivo (vasoconstriction) findings may be the result of the widely different concentrations of ANP used, rather than the state of resting vascular tone.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Over the past 8 years, we have followed a child born as a harlequin baby, who survived due to treatment with retinoids. His condition evolved clinically towards the erythrodermic form of lamellar ichthyosis (non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, NBCIE). According to ultrastructural and biochemical criteria, our patient originally presented with type II harlequin ichthyosis. Investigations showed an abnormal keratinosome structure and extrusion, a keratin pattern characteristic for epidermal hyperproliferation, and an absence of conversion of profilaggrin to filaggrin. Persisting keratinocyte hyperproliferation, associated with the presence of a dermal infiltrate, is in agreement with the present clinical picture of severe NBCIE. However, abnormal lamellar body production and defective filaggrin processing, which is not one of the diagnostic criteria of NBCIE, persist in the patient's skin. Further studies of the epidermal lipid composition, and of possible mutations of the keratinocyte transglutaminase gene performed on epidermal cell cultures of harlequin ichthyosis, will be necessary before type II harlequin ichthyosis can be accepted as an extremely severe form of NBCIE.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The stratum corneum (SC) has long been considered as a sort of inert membrane destined to be shed at the surface of the epidermis. During the last two decades, however, several lines of evidence have been reported, suggesting that active physical and chemical changes take place in the horny layer despite the absence of intracytoplasmic organelles. In particular, processing of filaggrin, replacement of the plasma membrane by a ceramide envelope and constant, progressive modification of extracellular lipid multilayers have been put forward. Recently, attention has focused on the intercellular junctions, which may be involved in the regulation of SC desquamation. Corneodesmosin, a newly discovered protein of SC desmosomes (corneodesmosomes), is synthesized at the latest stages of keratinocyte differentiation and persists between the horny cells until desquamation occurs. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemical and immuno-ultrastructural investigations on corneodesmosin expression in various skin lesions characterized by abnormal production and/or retention of the horny layer. Our results suggest that corneodesmosin expression is independent from profilaggrin synthesis. We found corneodesmosin in almost all morphologically recognizable corneodesmosomal structures and specifically those which persisted up to the SC surface. Hyperkeratotic lesions which are characterized by an increased number of junctions showed intense immunoreactivity with anticorneodesmosin antibody. A complete absence of corneodesmosin was not observed in any disease. This finding, together with our previous biochemical studies, suggests that corneodesmosin may exert a protective function against proteolytic degradation of corneodesmosomes both in normal skin and in the pathological horny layer.
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