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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Interleukin 13 — Polymorphonuclear neutrophil — Prostaglandin E2— Cyclooxygenase 2 — Neutral esterase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective: To investigate whether interleukin-13 (IL-13) can affect arachidonic acid metabolism and phagocytic activity of normal human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN).¶Methods: Normal human PMN (1 × 106 cells/ml) were incubated with different concentrations of IL-13 (0.1–10 ng/ml) for a variety of times (30–120 min). Phagocytosis and intracellular cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The concentration of PGE2 in the PMN cultured supernatants was determined by EIA.¶Results: We found that IL-13 at an optimal concentration of 1 ng/ml significantly enhanced COX-2 gene expression and PGE2 production (121.57 ± 22.17 pg/ml in IL-13 stimulation vs. 73.16 ± 11.72 pg/ml in controls) by PMN. In addition, IL-13 stimulated PMN phagocytosis via increased complement receptor type 1 (CR1) and type 3 (CR3), but not IgG Fcγ receptor type 3 (FcγRIII). The cytoplasmic neutral esterase activity of PMN was also enhanced by IL-13 stimulation for 24 h.¶Conclusions: These results suggest that IL-13 can stimulate PMN and modulates the inflammatory reactions via the cyclooxygenase pathway.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 81 (1997), S. 2089-2093 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The dynamic emission of screw dislocations from a propagating crack tip has been investigated. The crack velocity and velocity of each dislocation are assumed to be proportional to the third power of the stress intensity factor and the effective stress, respectively. The stress intensity factor for the ith dislocation emission is derived according to the spontaneous emission criterion. It is found that the stress intensity factor for dislocation emission is independent of crack mobility but the number of dislocations emitted decreases with increasing crack mobility. The number of emitted dislocations and the size of the plastic zone decrease but the maximum stress intensity factor for dislocation emission increases with increasing initial crack length. The size of the dislocation-free zone increases with increasing initial crack length for steady state. The dislocation–crack system reaches the steady state when the dislocations and crack tip move at the same velocity. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Anaesthesia 52 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the effect of three different recumbent positions on autonomic nervous activity in late pregnancy. Thirty pregnant and 24 nonpregnant aged-matched women were studied, and measures of heart rate variability in both time and frequency domains were compared using supine, right and left lateral decubitus positions. In the nonpregnant women, the normalised high-frequency power was greatest in the right lateral decubitus position. In the pregnant women, the normalised high-frequency power was lowest and the low/high-frequency power ratio was greatest in the supine position. Both the percentage decrease of normalised high-frequency power and the percentage increase of low/high-frequency power ratio in the supine and right lateral positions were greater than those in the left lateral position. For women in late pregnancy, the left lateral decubitus position may be beneficial because cardiac vagal activity is least suppressed and cardiac sympathetic activity is least enhanced. Aortocaval compression might be the mechanism underlying the change in cardiac autonomic nervous activity when supine and right lateral decubitus positions are assumed in late pregnancy.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Spontaneous variability ; Mechanical ventilation ; Arterial oxygenation ; Positive end-expiratory pressure ; Inverse ratio ventilation ; Venous admixture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To assess the magnitude of spontaneous variability of arterial oxygenation and oxygen tension-based indices over time in medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to study whether high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or inverse inspiratory-to-expiratory (I:E) ratio ventilation (IRV) results in a greater variability than low PEEP with conventiona l I:E ratio ventilation. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Medical ICU in a tertiary medical center. Participants: 23 patients requiring a pulmonary artery floating catheter for hemodynamic monitoring. Intervention: After being completely sedated, patients were randomized to receive pressure-control ventilation at setting A: high PEEP (15 cmH2O) with conventional I:E ratio (1:2) and setting B: inverse I:E ratio (2:1) with low PEEP (5 cmH2O) alternately, and then at setting C: low PEEP (5 cmH2O) with conventional I:E ratio (1:2). Each ventilation setting lasted 1 h. Measurements and results: The arterial and mixed venous blood samples were measured simultaneously at baseline (time 0), and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter. The coefficient of variation (CV) of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) over time was 5.9 % for setting A, 7.2 % for setting B, and 6.9 % for setting C. ANOVA showed no significant differences in CVs of PaO2 between the three settings. Oxygen tension-based indices, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) and PaO2/PAO2 (alveolar oxygen tension), displayed CV s equal to that of PaO2; the CV of A-aDO2/PaO2 was significantly greater than that of PaO2. Conclusions: In critically ill medical ICU patients, despite sedation, the spontaneous variability in PaO2 over time is substantial. A high PEEP or IRV does not contribute to the increased variation in PaO2.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thin (750 Å) plasma-polymerized films of acetylene were deposited onto polished steel substrates in an inductively coupled r.f. reactor. The films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) immediately after deposition and after aging in the atmosphere. The FTIR spectra of the as-deposited films were characterized by bands related to mono- and disubstituted acetylene groups and by bands related to methyl and methylene groups. During exposure to the atmosphere, bands related to acetylenic groups decreased in intensity while new bands due to carbonyl groups appeared. When XPS spectra were obtained from films that were exposed to the atmosphere, new components assigned to oxidation products were observed in the C 1s spectra that were not observed for as-deposited films, verifying that oxidation had occurred. Numerous peaks related to aromatic structures were observed in positive SIMS spectra of as-deposited films. Results obtained from AES showed that the plasma-polymerized films were continuous and that the oxide on the substrate surface was partially reduced during deposition.Plasma-polymerized acetylene films were excellent primers for rubber-to-steel bonding. Miniature lap joints were prepared by using rubber as an ‘adhesive’ to bond together pairs of polished steel adherends primed with plasma-polymerized acetylene films. The force required to break the as-prepared joints was ∼2000 N for a bonded area of 64 mm2 and failure was 100% cohesive in the rubber. Similar results were obtained for joints prepared using polished brass substrates.Because of the complexity of reactions between rubber and the plasma-polymerized primer, a model ‘rubber’ consisting of a mixture of squalene, zinc oxide, carbon black, sulfur, stearic acid, cobalt naphthenate, N,N-dicyclohexylbenzothiazole sulfenamide and diaryl-p-diphenyleneamine was used to simulate the cross-linking reaction. The results obtained using XPS, SIMS, AES and FTIR showed that sulfur diffused through the primer to form a layer of sulfide at the primer/substrate interface. Zinc and cobalt sulfides and perthiomercaptides, which formed at the interface between squalene and the plasma-polymerized acetylene primer, catalyzed the reaction between squalene and the primer. Cross-links between squalene and the primer were mostly mono-sulfidic, although some evidence for di- and trisulfidic cross-links was observed.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1436-6304
    Keywords: Production scheduling ; dynamic setup change ; Produktionsablaufplanung ; stochastisches Flow-Shop-Problem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wir betrachten ein zweistufiges Produktionssystem, in dem zwei Produkte mit konstanten produktspezifischen Produktionsgeschwindigkeiten und Rüstzeiten bearbeitet werden. Zwischen den beiden Maschinen sind zwei produktspezifische Puffer angeordnet. Die Nachfragerate für jedes Produkt ist abschnittsweise konstant. Jede Maschine unterliegt zeitabhängigen Störungen. Die fehlerfreien Laufzeiten und die Reparaturzeiten sind exponentialverteilte Zufallsvariablen, wobei Rüst- und Bearbeitungsvorgänge nach einer störungsbedingten Unterbrechung ohne Verlust fortgesetzt werden. Wir modellieren das Produktionssystem als zeit- und mengenkontinuierlichen Prozeß. Es wird das Problem der Bestimmung der optimalen Kontrollpolitik mit dem Ziel der Minimierung der diskontierten Kosten bei unendlichem Horizont formuliert. Zur Bestimmung der Struktur der optimalen Kontrollpolitik wird eine diskretisierte Version des Problems mit Hilfe der dynamischen Programmierung unter Berücksichtigung einer stückweise linearen Strafkostenfunktion gelöst. Anschließend wird ein Algorithmus entwickelt, mit dem geringe Lagerbestände bei gleichzeitiger Erfüllung der Nachfrage erreicht werden können. Der Algorithmus, der auf einer hierarchischen Kontrollstruktur basiert, dient zur Bestimmung der Produktionszeitpunkte, wobei in Echtzeit auf zufällige Störungen im System reagiert werden kann. Die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens wird anhand eines Simulationsmodells mit alternativen Politiken verglichen.
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we study a manufacturing system consisting of two machines separated by two intermediate buffers, and capable of producing two different products. Each product requires a constant processing time on each of the machines. Each machine requires a constant non-negligible setup change time from one product to the other. The demand rate for each product is considered to be piecewise constant. Each machine undergoes failure and repair. The time-to-failure and time-to-repair are exponentially distributed random variables. The setup change and processing operations are resumable. We model our system as a continuous time, continuous flow process. An optimal control problem is formulated for the system to minimize the total expected discounted cost over an infinite horizon. To determine the optimal control policy structure, a discrete version of the problem is solved numerically using a dynamic programming formulation with a piecewise linear penalty function. A real-time control algorithm is then developed with the objective of maintaining low work-in-process inventory and keeping the production close to the demand. The algorithm uses a hierarchical control structure to generate the loading times for each product on each machine in real time and to respond to random disruptions in the system. The system is simulated using this algorithm to study its performance. The performance of the algorithm is also compared to alternative policies.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Isothermal equilibrium adsorption ; Concanavalin A ; Dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) latex particles ; Electrostatic/affinity interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Isothermal equilibrium adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorption of concanavalin A (Con A) on dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex particles. Three PMMA particles with various levels of dextran modification were selected for study: 0% (designated as D0), 1.24% (D20), and 2.45% (D75) based on total polymer weight. The Langmuir model is applicable to both D0 and D20 systems, although the data for the D20 system are somewhat scattered. On the other hand, the amount of Con A adsorbed per gram polymer particles (q*) versus the Con A concentration in water (c*) curve for the D75 system cannot be described by the Langmuir model. The deviation is attributed to the formation of a crosslinked network structure, caused by specific binding of the dimeric Con A molecules onto two neighboring particles with grafted dextran. The ratio of the initial number of Con A molecules to the initial number of active binding sites on the dextran-modified particle surface plays an important role in determining the structure of flocs formed. The maximum amount of Con A adsorbed on the particle surface (q max) is of the order of 10−1 μmol per gram particles and q max in decreasing order is D75 〉 D20 〉 D0. The dissociation constant of the Con A-D20 (or Con A-D75) pair is of the order of 10−1 μmol dm−3 which is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that of the Con A-D0 pair. Thus, the electrostatic interaction between Con A and D0 is much weaker than the affinity interaction between Con A and D20 (or D75). An empirical model is proposed to qualitatively explain the q* versus c* data.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Emulsion polymerization ; poly(methyl methacrylate) ; dextranstabilizer ; concanavalin A ; affinity purification ; colloidal stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract  Stable poly(methyl methacrylate) latex particles (220–360 nm in diameter) using dextran as the protective colloid were prepared and characterized in this study. Such an emulsion polymerization system follows Smith–Ewart Case III kinetics (i.e., the average number of free radicals per particle is greater than 0.5) due to the relatively large latex particle size. The carbohydrate content of these dextran modified emulsion polymers shows a maximum around 5% dextran based on total monomer weight. The latex stability during polymerization is closely related to the carbohydrate content of these latex particles, and it is controlled by the ratio of the thickness of the dextran adsorption layer to that of the electric double layer of the latex particles. The critical flocculation concentration (CFC) of the latex products correlates well with the latex stability during polymerization. The greater the total scrap produced during polymerization (i.e., the stronger the bridging flocculation), the lower is the CFC of the latex products. The affinity precipitation of concanavalin A (a model lectin used in this study) by the dextran modified PMMA latex particles is also illustrated in this study. The specifically adsorbed concanavalin A increases with the carbohydrate content of the dextran modified latex particles.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Colloidal stability ; dextran-modified latex particles ; concanavalin A ; electrostatic/steric stabilization ; charge neutralization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The colloidal stability of the dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex particles toward adsorption of a carbohydrate-binding protein, concanavalin A (Con A), is primarily controlled by the charge neutralization mechanism. Formation of a crosslinked network structure via the specific affinity interactions between the dimeric Con A molecules and the dextran molecules anchored onto different latex particles may also have an impact on the coagulation kinetics. Judging from the data of coagulation kinetics, the colloidal stability of the latex particles toward added Con A in the decreasing order is: latex particles without dextran modification〉latex particles with a dextran content of 2.15%〉latex particles with a dex-tran content of 1.24% based on total polymer weight (PMMA+grafted dextran). The coagulation mechanisms involved in the adsorption of Con A onto the latex particles have been proposed to explain these experimental data. Charge neutralization of the negatively charged latex particles by adsorption of the positively charged Con A is the predominant destabilization mechanism. The ratio of the number of dextran active sites to that of Con A molecules plays an important role in the formation of the crosslinked network structure. The electrolytes in water cause a reduction in the electrostatic repulsion force among the interactive latex particles, but this ionic strength effect is not significant in comparison with charge neutralization.
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