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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Parkinson’s disease ; Postural set ; Stance ; Background activity ; EMG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Abnormal automatic postural responses are thought to contribute to balance impairment in Parkinson’s disease. However, because postural responses are modifiable by stance, we have speculated that some postural abnormalities in patients with Parkinson’s disease are secondary to their stooped stance. We have studied this assumption by assessing automatic postural responses in 30 healthy subjects who were instructed either to stand upright or to assume a typical parkinsonian posture. During both conditions, subjects received 20 serial 4°’toe-up’ rotational perturbations from a supporting forceplate. We recorded short-latency (SL) and medium-latency (ML) responses from stretched gastrocnemius muscles and long-latency (LL) responses from shortened tibialis anterior muscles. We also assessed changes in the center of foot pressure (CFP) and the center of gravity (COG). The results were qualitatively compared to a previously described group of patients with Parkinson’s disease who, under these circumstances, typically have large ML responses, small LL responses and insufficient voluntary postural corrections, accompanied by a slow rate of backward CFP displacement and an increased posterior COG displacement. The stooped posture resulted in unloading of medial gastrocnemius muscles and loading of tibialis anterior muscles. Onset latencies of stretch responses in gastrocnemius muscles were delayed in stooped subjects, but the onset of LL responses was markedly reduced. Amplitudes of both ML and LL responses were reduced in stooped subjects. Prestimulus COG and, to a lesser extent, CFP were shifted forwards in stooped subjects. Posterior COG displacement and the rate of backward CFP displacement were diminished in stooped subjects. Voluntary postural corrections were unchanged while standing stooped. These results indicate that some postural abnormalities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (most notably the reduced LL responses) can be reproduced in healthy subjects mimicking a stooped parkinsonian posture. Other postural abnormalities (most notably the increased ML responses and insufficient voluntary responses) did not appear in stooped controls and may contribute to balance impairment in Parkinson’s disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Iron is essential in the cellular metabolism of all mammalian tissues, including the brain. Intracerebral iron concentrations vary with age and in several (neurological) diseases. Although it is evident that endothelial cells lining the capillaries in the brain are of importance, factors governing the regulation of intracerebral iron concentration are unknown. To investigate the role of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells in cerebral iron regulation, primary cultures of porcine blood-brain barrier endothelial cells were grown in either iron-enriched or iron-depleted medium. Iron-enriched cells showed a reduction in surface-bound and total transferrin receptor numbers compared with iron-depleted cells. Transferrin receptor kinetics showed that the transferrin receptor internalization rate in iron-enriched cultures was higher, whereas the transferrin receptor externalization rate in iron-enriched cultures was lower than the rate in iron-depleted cultures. Moreover, blood-brain barrier endothelial cells cultured in iron-enriched medium were able to accumulate more iron intracellularly, which underlines our kinetic data on transferrin receptors. Our results agree with histopathological studies on brain tissue of patients with hemochromatosis, suggesting that at high peripheral iron concentrations, the rate of iron transport across the blood-brain barrier endothelial cells is to some extent proportional to the peripheral iron concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Vestibular schwannoma ; Tumor activity ; Vestibular compensation ; Electronystagmography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Vestibular function was studied in a group of 121 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas who were referred to University Hospital Utrecht between 1986 and 1996. Testing included the caloric test, torsion test, saccade test, smooth pursuit test and the registration of spontaneous nystagmus. Each patient’s symptoms were taken from a chart review. The size of the tumor was expressed as the maximum extrameatal diameter in the axial plane parallel to the petrous ridge as seen in magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Large tumors were significantly more often accompanied by a more severe paresis on caloric testing, a smaller gain on torsion testing, spontaneous nystagmus, an abnormal saccade test and an abnormal smooth pursuit test. The presence of spontaneous nystagmus was significantly more frequently combined with an abnormal smooth pursuit and saccade test. There was a significant correlation between the slow component’s velocity of the spontaneous nystagmus and the size and progression of tumor. However, a specific relation between tumor size and central vestibular compensation could not be demonstrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Distribution of iron in the brain varies with region, cell type, and age. Furthermore, some neurological diseases are accompanied by an abnormal accumulation of iron in specific areas of the CNS. These findings implicate a mobile intracerebral iron pool; however, transport of iron across the blood-brain barrier and its regulation are largely unknown. In an extensive series of experiments in primary cultures of porcine blood-brain barrier endothelial cells, we separately quantified surface-bound and total cellular transferrin receptor pools. Although 90% of all transferrin receptors were located inside the cell, only 10% of these intracellular receptors actively took part in the endocytic cycle. This large “inactive” intracellular transferrin receptor pool could either function as a storage site for spare receptors or be activated by the cell to increase its capacity for iron transport. Data were corrected for nonspecific binding by a separate biochemical assessment using a 100-fold excess of unlabeled ligand. Data were also analyzed in a nonlinear curve-fit program. This resulted in a less elaborate and less biased estimate of nonspecific binding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder was studied as a reactor for two polymerizations in bulk: the homopolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate and the copolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate with 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate. The influence of the extrusion parameters on the product was analyzed. With both reactions, conversions up to 95% were obtained. Nevertheless, a significant difference was observed in the working domain of both polymerizations, in which a stable reactive extrusion process could be attained wherein the discharge rate is constant and equals the feed rate. In the case of the relatively fast copolymerization, both the throughput and the screw rotation rate could be raised without endangering the stability of the process. This was not the case for the homopolymerization studied. It was determined that the stability of the process depends on the reaction velocity and the product viscosity. Within the boundaries of the working domain, the molecular weight could be influenced by adjustments of the extrusion parameters.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 46 (1998), S. 31-37 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: DNA liquid crystals ; DNA fragments ; screened Coulomb interactions ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The critical volume fractions pertaining to the formation of DNA liquid crystals were obtained from polarization microscopy, 31P-nmr, and phase separation experiments. The DNA length (approximately one to two times the persistence length 50 nm), ionic strength, and counterion variety dependencies are reported. The cholesteric-isotropic transition is interpreted in terms of the coexistence equations, which are derived from the solution free energy including orientational entropy and excluded volume effects. With the wormlike chain as reference system, the electrostatic contribution to the free energy is evaluated as a thermodynamic perturbation in the second virial approximation with a Debye-Hückel potential of mean force. The hard core contribution has been evaluated with scaled particle theory and/or a simple generalization of the Carnahan-Starling equation of state for hard spheres. For sufficiently high ionic strengths, the agreement is almost quantitative. At lower amounts of added salt deviations are observed, which are tentatively attributed to counterion screening effects. The contour length dependence agrees with a DNA persistence length 50 nm. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopoly 46: 31-37, 1998
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The distribution of vimentin- and desmin-positive cells in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) dermis was investigated by means of immunohistochemical reactivity with the commercially available (Euro-Diagnostics) polyclonal antibodies. The staining pattern for vimentin in the paraffin sections was generally comparable to that in other animal species with regard to endothelial cells, vascular wall cells, muscle cells and fibroblasts. The modified Schwann cells in the inner core of the Herbst corpuscles reacted distinctly with anti-vimentin and anti-desmin. Some connective tissue cells in the superficial dermal layer, in the feather papilla and along the pulp core inside of the regenerating feathers were particularly well stained with anti-vimentin. Fibroblast-like cells of the regenerating feathers, particularly at the base of the pulp, also reacted strongly with anti-desmin. The findings were discussed with regard to references.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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