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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Triturus cristatus carnifex provides a particularly clear example of sexual dimorphism for chiasma frequency and localisation. Oocytes from normal XX females routinely carry one proximal chiasma on each arm of their lampbrush bivalents. Spermatocytes from normal XY males have more numerous and relatively distal chiasmata. Lampbrush chromosomes from the oocytes of sex-reversed XY neofemales are found to resemble those from normal oocytes in having one proximal chiasma on each bivalent arm. A comparison of particular markers on the heteromorphic long arm of chromosome 1 provides evidence to equate the lampbrush 1A to somatic 1A, and confirms previous reports that lampbrush chromosome 1A is slightly longer than 1B. The XY sex bivalent of neofemales does not show any obvious heteromorphy of recognised marker loops.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Key words. Sex determination; sex reversal; temperature dependence; sex hormone; amphibia; Triturus cristatus.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Amphibians employ a genetic mechanism of sex determination, according to all available information on sex chromosomes or breeding tests. Sex reversal allows breeding tests to establish which sex is heterogametic and provides an indication of the mechanism of sex determination. Cases of spontaneous and experimental sex reversal (by temperature, hormones or surgery) are reviewed and illustrated by previously unpublished studies on crested newts. These newts respond conventionally to temperature and hormone treatment but provide anomalous results from breeding tests. It is suggested that both the evolution from temperature dependency to a genetic switch and from ZZ/ZW to XX/XY are superimposed on a generally uniform mechanism of sex determination in all vertebrates.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; glycolysis ; metabolism ; glucose ; trehalose ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Intracellular metabolic flux has been investigated in two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown into stationary phase under both glucose-repressed and glucose-derepressed conditions. By employing a variety of simple methodologies (manometry, enzymatic analysis and colorimetric analysis) we have been able to identify and quantitate carbon flow from glucose without the need for isotopically labelled substrate. We can account for 88-98% (depending on strain and growth conditions) of the carbon products of glucose metabolism under both glycolytic and oxidative conditions as ethanol (27-40%), carbon dioxide (15-26%), acetate (2-3%), glycerol (5-11%), glycogen (5-13%) and trehalose (9-39%).©1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract.  Synchronous spawning of many coral species that co-occur on Indo-Pacific reefs raises the possibility that hybridization plays a role in their evolution. Here we use experimental crosses to examine mating compatibilities and breeding barriers in a group of sessile animals whose mating systems are primarily governed by interactions among free-spawned gametes. We found hybridization occurs readily in more than one-third of 42 species pairs from the common genera Acropora, Montipora and Platygyra. Mean fertilization success ranged from 1% to 50% in species crosses, but standard deviations about these means were large and in some cases, fertilization success in individual colony matings was greater than 95%. Cases of high fertility in individual, interspecific matings were found in all three genera. Hybridization occurred most readily between species that were morphologically similar, identifying areas where current taxonomic judgements may require further testing. However, cases of significant hybridization also occurred between species that are morphologically distinct. Evidence of in vitro hybridization combined with the lack of either temporal or spatial barriers to interbreeding among field populations of these species, indicates that natural hybridization may occur commonly between congeneric corals that are currently recognized as distinct species. We also detected mating incompatibilities between some colonies within some species. In some cases, incompatible colonies corresponded to distinct morphotypes, but not in others. Thus some breeding groups in scleractinian corals are potentially larger, but others are smaller, than would be predicted using morphological criteria. Gamete incompatibilities within a morphospecies that readily hybridizes with other species may be the result of a mating system that is governed by gamete-level interactions. Imprecision in the alignment of morphological and breeding boundaries suggests a single species concept may not apply to scleractinian corals and challenges the tacit assumption that currently defined coral species encompass biological, evolutionary and phylogenetic species. Hybridization between supposedly isolated species introduces a reticulate nature to the evolution of corals and has profound implications for present understanding of the population genetics, phylogenetics, and evolutionary biology of scleractinian corals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Cactaceae ; Chloroplast ; DNA ; Ribosomal polymerase ; rpoC1 intron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The deletion of an approximately 700-bp intron in the chloroplast-encoded generpoC1 was shown in 21 representative species of the subfamily Cactoideae of the angiosperm family Cactaceae. Members of the subfamilies Pereskioideae and Opuntioideae were found to possess the intron, as did members of the related families Aizoaceae, Basellaceae, Didiereaceae, Phytolaccaceae, and Portulacaceae. These results support a monophyletic origin for the most-speciose subfamily of the cactus family, and represent a first report of the loss of this intron in dicots.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Cactaceae ; Chloroplast ; DNA ; Ribosomal polymerase ; rpoC1 intron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The deletion of an approximately 700-bp intron in the chloroplast-encoded gene rpoC1 was shown in 21 representative species of the subfamily Cactoideae of the angiosperm family Cactaceae. Members of the subfamilies Pereskioideae and Opuntioideae were found to possess the intron, as did members of the related families Aizoaceae, Basellaceae, Didiereaceae, Phytolaccaceae, and Portulacaceae. These results support a monophyletic origin for the most-speciose subfamily of the cactus family, and represent a first report of the loss of this intron in dicots.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European biophysics journal 26 (1997), S. 299-306 
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words Ion binding ; Circular dichroism spectroscopy ; NMR ; Divalent cations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effects of binding calcium ions to the double helical forms of gramicidin present in methanol solution were examined using circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. It was found that calcium ions principally alter the relative composition of the equilibrium mixture of gramicidin conformers present in the solvent. In the absence of calcium, both parallel and antiparallel double helices are present. However, the addition of small amounts of Ca2+ shifts the equilibrium towards the left-handed parallel double helical form. This conformational change prevents monovalent cations (caesiums) from binding to the gramicidin double helix, and even converts the shorter, wider anti-parallel double helical form normally produced in the presence of caesium into the longer, narrower parallel double helical form. Furthermore, a temperature study showed that calcium ions tend to stabilize this form relative to the ion-free forms. The conformation of gramicidin is further changed, becoming a disordered structure, when the concentration of Ca2+ is raised. Thus, the binding of divalent calcium ions has a number of dramatic effects on the conformations of gramicidin present in solution.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Hereditary cylindromatosis (HC; MIM 132700) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by benign skin appendage tumors most commonly on the scalp and face. Previously, the HC gene (CYLD1) was linked to chromosome 16q12–13, and tumors showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH), suggesting that CYLD1 is a tumor suppressor gene. Here we report a new multi-generation cylindromatosis family whose condition maps to that region, with 7/13 tumors showing LOH on 16q.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diflunisal ; Probenecid ; steady state pharmacokinetics ; glucuronidation ; drug interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of diflunisal and its glucuronide and sulphate conjugates was studied in 8 healthy volunteers. Diflunisal 250 mg b. d. was administered p. o. for 15 days and its steady state pharmacokinetics was evaluated on Day 16 after the last dose (control phase). Probenecid 500 mg b. d. was co-administered throughout the entire study period in the treatment phase of the study. The steady state plasma concentration of diflunisal was significantly higher during the probenecid treatment phase as compared to the control phase (104.0 vs. 63.1 μg·ml−1). This was the result of a significant decrease in the plasma clearance of diflunisal from 5.8 (control) to 3.4 ml·min−1 (probenecid co-administration). The metabolite formation clearances of both glucuronides were significantly decreased by probenecid, -45 % and -54 % for the phenolic and acyl glucuronide, respectively. The metabolite formation clearance of the sulphate conjugate was not affected by probenecid co-administration. Steady state plasma concentrations of the sulphate and glucuronide conjugates of diflunisal were 2.5- to 3.1-fold higher during probenecid co-administration, due to a significant reduction in the renal clearance of the three diflunisal conjugates. Probenecid also reduced the plasma protein binding of diflunisal, but only to a minor extent; the unbound plasma fraction of diflunisal at steady state averaged between 5 and 30 % higher during probenecid co-administration.
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