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  • 1
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Radiation therapy ; Bone metastases ; Head and neck cancer ; Pain relief
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy for pain relief of bone metastases from head and neck cancer, a total of 22 patients with head and neck cancer with 30 metastatic bone lesions treated by radiation therapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital were analyzed. These patients were given a dose of 20 to 50 Gy in 10 to 25 fractions using liniac X-ray or electron beam and were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 10 patients with tongue cancer (tongue cancer group), and group B consisted of 12 patients other than with tongue cancer (non-tongue cancer group). In group A, of the 6 metastatic lesions treated with over 30 Gy, 17% achieved CR (complete pain relief for more than 3 months), 33% showed PR (over 50% extent pain relief), and 50% NC. While, in group B, of the 17 lesions 35% showed Cr, 53% PR and 12% NC. There was a significant difference in the response rate (50% vs 88%, P〈0.01) of pain relief between the osseous metastases from tongue cancer group and the non-tongue cancer group, although further prospective studies are necessary to elucidate the radiosensitivity of bone metastases in terms of the histologic difference in head and neck cancer patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(amide acid) ammonium salts ; poly(amide acid)s ; water-soluble polyimide precursors ; UV-vis absorption spectra ; charge transfer ; solubility ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of ammonium salts of poly(amide acid)s (PAS) were prepared from various poly(amide acid)s (PAA) with tertiary amines. The solubility of poly(amide acid) ammonium salts prepared from PAA(PMDA/ODA) in water is related to the ion concentration of tertiary amines. In order to elucidate the influence of the chemical structures of poly(amide acid)s and poly(amide acid) ammonium salts on their absorption spectra, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 3,3′,4,4 ′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and 3,3′,4,4 ′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) were chosen to react with p-phenylenediamine (PDA) and (4,4′-diaminodicyclohexyl)methane (DCHM) to give three kinds of aromatic PAAs and three kinds of alicyclic PAAs. The corresponding PASs were prepared by the reaction of PAAs with triethanolamine (TEA). Their ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra were investigated compared to those of model compounds. A transparent film without absorption above 320 nm was obtained for PAS(PMDA/DCHM). The difference in absorption spectra of PAS(PMDA/PDA) from that of PAS(PMDA/DCHM) can be related to the existence of intra- and intermolecular charge transfer (CT) for PAS(PMDA/PDA). The absorption spectra of PASs with PDA in films are red shifted compared to those of corresponding PAAs in films, while the absorption spectra of PASs in water are blue shifted compared to those of corresponding PAAs in DMF. No differences in the absorption spectra of PAAs and PASs were found in DMF/H2O (9/1) mixed solvent. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1329-1340, 1998
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Bone metastasis markers ; Bone metastasis ; Diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The efficacy and cost/performance benefit of radionuclide bone scintigraphy in monitoring metastatic bone activity remain controversial. Recently developed bone metabolic markers are expected to play an additional role in the diagnosis of bone metastasis. We measured osteoclastic and osteoblastic markers in 267 patients with breast cancer (100 with bone metastasis), 38 patients with prostatic cancer (25 with bone metastasis), 50 patients with lung cancer (12 with bone metastasis) and 33 patients with miscellaneous cancers (13 with bone metastasis) and compared the values in the presence and absence of bone metastasis. Bone metabolic markers, both osteoclastic and osteoblastic, increased significantly in patients with bone metastasis. In breast cancer (bone metastasis is mostly of the mixed type), osteoclastic markers were good in detecting bone metastasis. In prostatic cancer (bone metastasis is mostly osteoblastic), osteoclastic and osteoblastic markers were equally effective in detecting bone metastasis. In lung cancer (bone metastasis is mostly osteolytic), osteoclastic markers were elevated preferentially in bone metastasis. Over all, osteoclastic markers were more sensitive in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, and among osteoclastic markers, serum pyridionoline-cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide was the most efficient in both specificity (91.0%) and sensitivity (48.6%) for detecting bone metastasis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: thermotropic liquid-crystalline polyester ; fluorescence ; intermolecular ground-state complex ; electronic distribution ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A thermotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) polyester, poly[(ethylene terephthalate)-co-(p-oxybenzoate)] (PET40/OBA60) (OBA content: 60 mol %), is investigated by fluorescence technique using two model compounds: dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and methyl methoxybenzoate (MMB) and is demonstrated to form an intermolecular ground-state complex between the terephthalate and OBA moieties. The change in fluorescence of PET40/OBA60 film is studied from 25°C to 450°C. The peak wavelength change for fluorescence of the intermolecular ground-state complex from 394 to 430 nm was observed in the temperature range between Tg and the LC transition temperature (115∼ 250°C). This is attributed to the electronic distribution change between terephthalate and OBA moieties in the excited state, which play roles of acceptor and donor, respectively. The increase in the fluorescence intensity from the temperature near the annealing temperature to the temperature near the isotropic temperature (287∼370°C) is suggested to be the increase in LC configuration and the formation of a more stable excited state due to the electronic distribution change between terephthalate and OBA moieties. The lifetime of PET40/OBA60 film quenched from LC temperature (300°C) to room temperature is in agreement with that of the nonannealed one, which is due to the fact that the deactivation process of the sample quenched from LC temperature is in accord with that of the nonannealed one. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1022-1352
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: We studied the highly constraining microenvironment in unimolecular micelles (unimers) of amphiphilic random terpolymers containing sodium sulfonate, cyclododecyl (CD) or lauryl (LA) groups, and a small amount of tetraphenylporphine (H2TPP) moiety at low temperatures by using photochemical hole burning spectroscopy. The terpolymers were embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol). Only the terpolymer with CD groups forms unimers in the polymer matrix. We also measured the homopolymers containing CD or LA groups doped with H2TPP. The burned (spectral) holes were thermally more stable in the unimer with CD clusters than in the terpolymer with LA groups and in the homopolymer with CD groups. The phonon frequency is larger in the unimer with CD clusters (15.9 cm-1) than in the homopolymer containing CD groups (12.5 cm-1). The results are attributed to the “pinning down” of the H2TPP species to constrained configurations in the CD cluster.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1022-1352
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Excursion temperature dependences of spectral hole profiles in photochemical hole burning for free-base systems porphyrin/poly(alkyl methacrylate)s are investigated to see the relationship between relaxation properties and chemical structure of the polymers. The irreversible change in hole width is a characteristic of each polymer and is very similar to the relaxation behavior measured mechanically and dielectrically. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shows the highest thermal stability of hole profiles among the polymers presently studied with no marked appearance of local relaxation at 20-100 K. Poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and poly(isopropyl methacrylate) (PiPMA) show an increase in hole width even at 20 K with a plateau region at 50-70 K, which is attributed to the rotation of the ethyl or isopropyl group around the C—O bond. Polymers which contain more than two serial methylene groups in the side chains (poly(propyl methacrylate), poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(isobutyl methacrylate)) show a similar relaxation behavior around 50-60 K, suggesting the onset of the rotation of the terminal ethyl or isopropyl group in the ester side chain around the C—C bond. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) shows a similar excursion-temperature dependence probably due to the existence of branched oligomethylene side chains. The relaxation behavior is independent of the nature of chromophores, which indicates that irreversible hole broadening is controlled mainly by the local motion of the host matrices.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 199 (1998), S. 949-954 
    ISSN: 1022-1352
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A soluble fluorine-containing polyimide derived from 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl (DHBP) was prepared and successfully crosslinked via the reaction between hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and the hydroxyl groups on the phenylene rings, leading to the formation of a soft polyimide gel. The gelation times vary according to the amount of crosslinker. Higher concentration of the crosslinker and catalyst accelerates the gelation reaction. We found that the crosslinker, HMDI, not only reacts with hydroxyl groups on the phenylene rings but also forms an oligomeric chain through the reaction with moisture. The conversion of the crosslinker was estimated from NMR. The volume changes of the gels against solvent composition were also studied. The polyimide gels swell when the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) weight fraction is larger than 0.80 in the mixed solvent NMP/water at 20°C. During the swelling process less time is needed for the gels to reach the equilibrium in NMP richer solvents. This is the first report as far as we know on the synthesis of a polyimide gel and the study of its properties.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: photoconductivity ; charge carrier ; fluorescence ; curing effect ; molecular aggregation ; polyimides with alicyclic diamines ; intermolecular interaction ; mixed layer packing ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Photoconduction mechanism of a polyimide with an alicyclic diamine, PI(PMDA/DCHM), prepared from pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4′-diaminodicyclohexylmethane (DCHM) was investigated. Its UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, photoconductivity, and annealing effects on the photocurrent generation were measured and compared to those of CPD, N,N′-dicyclohexylpyromellitic diimide, and PI(PMDA/DMDHM) prepared from PMDA and 3,3′-dimethyl-4,4′-diaminodicyclohexylmethane (DMDHM). Photoconductivity of PI(PMDA/DCHM) depends upon the degree of molecular packing between polymer backbones. PI(PMDA/DMDHM) has no photoconductivity, probably due to a barrier to their intermolecular packing by the existence of two methyl substituents. Photoconductivity of PI(PMDA/DCHM) would be the result of the weak intermolecular interaction formed by mixed layer packing arrangement between pyromellitic moiety of one polymer backbone and N-cyclohexyl ring of another one in the ground state. Radiation absorption of this weak intermolecular interaction immediately forms a charge-transfer complex in the excited state and produces radical cation and anion charge carriers, which lead to the photoconductivity in the bulk polyimide film of PI(PMDA/DCHM). © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1433-1442, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1022-1352
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The fluorescence behaviour of a lyotropic liquid-crystalline polyester substituted with sulfonato and nitro groups, poly[potassium oxy(x-sulfonato-1,4-phenylene)oxy(x-nitroterephthaloyl)] (1), was studied in various phases by changing the polymer concentration. This liquid-crystalline polymer is soluble in several organic solvents and water. The observed fluorescence is originated from complexes between the potassium sulfonate-substituted aromatic moiety and the nitro-substituted aromatic moiety, and also from the dimer of the potassium sulfonate-substituted moiety. From the results of fluorescence intensity changes with concentration, the change of phase in this lyotropic liquid-crystalline system is suggested to occur gradually. By comparing the fluorescence behaviour in various phases with those of model compounds, the microstructure of the liquid-crystalline state can be evaluated to some extent.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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