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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. To evaluate the independent and interactive contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and ethanol-induced isozyme cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) genes to alcohol consumption large enough to induce health problems, 643 healthy Japanese men aged between 23 and 64 years, recruited from two different occupational groups, were analyzed for genotype and drinking habits. The frequency of excessive alcohol consumers (EAC) who drank 90 ml or more alcohol more than 3 days a week was significantly higher in subjects possessing the ALDH2 1 /ALDH2 1 genotype than in those having ALDH2 1 /ALDH2 2 or ALDH2 2 /ALDH2 2 genotypes. A significant difference was also found in the different genotypes of CYP2E1. Moreover, a borderline significant interaction between the ALDH2 and CYP2E1 genotypes on excessive alcohol consumption was observed, i.e., the group of subjects having the c2 allele of CYP2E1 had a higher frequency of EAC than those having c1/c1 genotypes in the genotype subgroup ALDH2 1 /ALDH2 1 , whereas these were not found in the heterozygote and homozygote subgroups of the ALDH2 2 allele. Neither the independent nor interactive genetic effect of ADH2 on excessive alcohol consumption was obvious. In conclusion, Japanese men with the ALDH2 1 /ALDH2 1 genotype and the c2 allele of CYP2E1 are at higher risk of showing excessive alcohol consumption.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Islet amyloid polypeptide ; monoclonal antibody ; non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; immunohistochemistry ; deposits.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have developed a mouse monoclonal antibody against rat/mouse islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). The antibody recognises an epitope in the N-terminal part of the molecule, which is conserved between different species. The antibody immunohistochemically labelled beta cells in normal islets of most different mammalian species including man and in one avian species. Previous immunohistochemical studies of human pancreatic tissue from individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have revealed a paradoxical and unexplained lack of IAPP immunoreactivity in beta cells close to amyloid in spite of the presence of IAPP mRNA. In contrast to these findings we show that the newly developed monoclonal IAPP antibody strongly labels such beta cells while islet amyloid deposits which are labelled by polyclonal antisera do not bind the monoclonal antibody. These findings with the polyclonal antisera and the monoclonal antibody indicate that IAPP undergoes one or several structural changes during the amyloidogenesis. Knowledge of these structural changes that may include abnormal folding or chemical modification of IAPP is probably important for the understanding of the amyloidogenesis and the pathogenesis of the islet lesion in NIDDM. [Diabetologia (1997) 40: 793–801]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 61 (1995), S. 301-304 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.55.Gp ; 52.50. Jm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract New continuous VUV radiation near 148 nm was observed from Kr/NF3/He and Kr/F2/He mixtures under X-ray excitation from a laser-produced plasma. Theoretical and experimental analysis shows that the continuum can be attributed to the transition of the ionic excimer Kr2+F−.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Oestrogens are the key factor in the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and play an important role in the activity of selected areas of the mature brain. To pursue the study of oestrogen action on neural cells at the molecular level, we developed a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-ER3) expressing the oestrogen receptor (ER). Treatment of these cells with 17β-oestradiol causes growth arrest and morphological and biochemical differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oestrogen-differentiated SK-ER3 neuroblastoma cells acquire the ability to synthesize a specific neurotransmitter and whether the growth arrest previously reported can be ascribed to the blockage of the cells at a specific stage of the cell cycle. The results presented here indicate that oestrogens induce accumulation of SK-ER3 cells in the GO phase of the cell cycle, underscoring the acquisition of a mature neural phenotype upon hormonal treatment. Most importantly, we show that in the differentiated cells the content of tyrosine hydroxylase and Na+-dependent dopamine uptake is significantly augmented, proving that the oestrogen-differentiated SK-ER3 cells can synthesize and store a specific neurotransmitter. In addition, we prove that the dopamine accumulated in differentiated SK-ER3 cells can be released. These studies therefore suggest that oestrogen treatment results in the acquisition of a fully functional dopaminergic phenotype of SK-ER3 cells. Ample evidence shows a link between dopaminergic neurons and oestrogen activity in hypothalamic and non-hypothalamic areas of the mammalian brain. Our study indicates that oestrogens might play a primary role in committing undifferentiated neuroblasts towards the dopaminergic phenotype.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 63 (1996), S. 43-46 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.65.Cq
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract By excitation of sodium vapor with an ultra-violet laser, tunable coherent emissions around 688 and 770 nm generated from diatomic sodium molecules have been observed for the first time. We demonstrate that the emission around 688 nm is due to an axially phase-matched four-wave-mixing process involving cascade emissions of ≈2.54 µm and ≈910 nm radiation from sodium dimers.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 21.60.Jz ; 21.10.Dr ; 21.10.Ft ; 27.30.+t
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The ground state properties of proton-rich nuclei18Ne,20Mg and22Si have been investigated using the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory with NL1 and NL-SH parameters. Proton halos in these nuclei are predicted. The characteristics of proton halos in nuclei are simply discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Rf6 ; Wheat ; Aegilops umbellulata RFLP ; Translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were used to map male fertility restoring gene that was transferred from chromosome 6U of Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. to wheat. Segments of chromosome 6U bearing the gene that restore fertility to T. timopheevi Zhuk. male sterile cytoplasm were identified in all four translocation lines by two probes, BCD21 and BCD342. Lines 040-5,061-1 and 061-4 are T6BL.6BS6U translocations, while line 2114 is a T6AL.6AS-6U translocation. Line 2114 has a much larger 6U chromosomal segment and lower frequency of transmission of male gametes with the alien segment than the other three lines. The restoring gene carried by the 6U segment in 2114 showed high expressivity and complete penetrance. This restoring gene is designated Rf6. A homoeologous chromosome recombination mechanism is discussed for the alien gene transfer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer for surface analysis has been developed that incorporates a Schwarzschild all-reflecting microscope. The instrument is configured for secondary ion mass spectrometry and secondary neutral mass spectrometry using either ion beam bombardment or laser ablation for sample atomization. The sample viewing and imaging system of this instrument enables in situ laser microanalysis with a lateral resolution below 1 μm. The major advantages of using a Schwarzschild objective include good lateral resolution, easy design, low cost, complete achromatism, and both viewing the sample and extracting secondary or photoions normal to its surface. The instrument has a mass resolution of m/Δm≥2000 and is capable of measuring elemental and isotopic compositions at trace levels using resonance ionization. The isotopic ratios of trace concentrations of Ti in μm size SiC grains separated from meteorites were measured. The extremely low ablation laser power used in the above experiment points to the possibility of using low-cost laser systems for laser microprobe applications. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 54 (1998), S. 109-114 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The crystal structure of monoclinic magnesium astrophyllite has been redetermined. The samples were from Khibina alkaline massifs, Russia. K2NaNa(Fe,Mn)4Mg2Ti2[Si4O12]2(OH)4(OH,F)2, Mr = 1202.31, monoclinic, A2, a = 10.370 (3), b = 23.129 (5), c = 5.322 (1) Å, β = 99.55 (2)°, V = 1258.8 (5) Å3, Z = 2, Dx = 3.173 Mg m−3, Mo Kα, λ = 0.71069 Å, μ = 3.74 mm−1, F(000) = 1179, T = room temperature, R = 0.057 for 1720 reflections. The determination indicated that the coordination number of Ti is five. In tetrahedra of astrophyllite the open-branched Si—O chain connected with Ti—O semi-octahedra by corner-sharing formed a continuous sheet. Na atoms have two types of coordination. Their coordination numbers are eight and six. The Na atoms with coordination number eight are situated between layers. Other types of Na atoms are situated within the layers and form Na—O octahedra with partial occupancies.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 1229-1231 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We introduce a high sensitivity (1J/m2) scanning microcalorimeter that can be used at high heating rates (104 °C/s). The system is designed using ultrathin SiN membranes that serve as a low thermal mass mechanical support structure for the calorimeter. Calorimetry measurements of the system are accomplished via resistive heating techniques applied to a thin film Ni heating element that also serves as a thermometer. A current pulse through the Ni heater generates heat in the sample via Joule heating. The voltage and current characteristics of the heater were measured to obtain real-time values of the temperature and the heat delivered to the system. This technique shows potential for measuring irreversible heat of reactions for processes at interfaces and surfaces. The method is demonstrated by measuring the heat of fusion for various amounts of thermally evaporated Sn ranging from 50 to 1000 A(ring). © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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