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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung  In der Arbeit wird über die Ergebnisse einer numerischen Studie, betreffend die stationäre Konvektionsströmung und den stationären Wärmeübergang in einer rechteckigen, mit einem porösen, phasenveränderlichen Medium (PCM) verfüllten Kavität, berichtet. Den zwei vertikalen Berandungen der Kavität sind zwei, den Schmelzpunkt des PCM einschließende Temperaturen aufgeprägt, während die beiden horizontalen Berandungen adiabat gehalten werden. Das poröse Medium ist durch einen anisotropen Permeabilitätstensor charakterisiert, dessen Hauptachsen bezüglich des Gravitationsvektors beliebig orientiert sein können. Das Problem ist durch das Seitenverhältnis A, die Rayleigh–Zahl Ra, das Anisotropienverhältnis R und den Orientierungswinkel Θ des Permeabilitätstensor bestimmt. Hauptaugenmerk gilt dem Einfluß der anisotropen Permeabilität auf das Strömungsverhalten und den Wärme-übergang beim Phasenwechselprozeß flüssig/fest. Die Lösungsmethode basiert auf dem Kontrollvolumenprinzip in Verbindung mit der Landau-Transformation über welche das irreguläre Strömungsgebiet in ein rechteckiges abgebildet wird. Ergebnisse bezüglich Strömungsfeld, Temperaturverteilung, Phasengrenzenort und Wärmeübergang werden fürA=2, 5;Ra=40; 0≤Θ≤π; 0, 25≤R≤4 mitgeteilt. Es zeigte sich, daß der Gleichgewichtszustand des Phasenwechselsprozesses fest/flüssig sowohl durch das Anisotropieverhältnis R als auch durch den Orientierungswinkel Θ des Permeabilitätstensors wesentlich beeinflußt werden kann. Zum einen existiert bei festgehaltenen ParameternA, Ra undR eine optimale Orientierung Θmax, bei der die Stromstärke, das Flüssigkeitsvolumen und der Wärmestrom Maximalwerte erreichen, während für Θmin=Θmax+π/2 Minimalwerte resultieren. Ist das anisotrope Medium entlang der Optimalrichtung Θmax orientiert, so ergibt sich zum anderen, daß eine Vergrößerung der in diese Richtung fallenden Permeabilitätskomponente die Stromstärke und den Wärmestrom in gleichem Maße erhöht, während eine Vergrößerung der anderen Permeabilitätskomponente nur vernachlässigbaren Einfluß hat. In den untersuchten Parameterbereichen lag die Optimalrichtung zwischen dem Gravitationsvektor und der Hauptstromrichtung.
    Notes: Abstract  This paper reports on the results of a numerical study of convection flow and heat transfer in a rectangular porous cavity filled with a phase change material under steady state conditions. The two vertical walls of the cavity are subject respectively to temperatures below and above the melting point of the PCM while adiabatic conditions are imposed on the horizontal walls. The porous medium is characterized by an anisotropic permeability tensor with the principal axes arbitrarily oriented with respect to the gravity vector. The problem is governed by the aspect ratioA, the Rayleigh numberRa, the anisotropy ratioR and the orientation angle θ of the permeability tensor. Attention is focused on these two latter parameters in order to investigate the effects of the anisotropic permeability on the fluid flow and heat transfer of the liquid/solid phase change process. The method of solution is based on the control volume approach in conjunction with the Landau-transformation to map the irregular flow domain into a rectangular one. The results are obtained for the flow field, temperature distribution, interface position and heat transfer rate forA=2.5,Ra=40, 0≤θ≤π, 0.25≤R≤4. It was found that the equilibrium state of the solid/liquid phase change process may be strongly influenced by the anisotropy ratioR as well as by the orientation angle θ of the permeability tensor. First, for a given set of parametersA,Ra andR, there exists an optimum orientation θmax for which the flow strength, the liquid volume and the heat transfer rate are maximum. There also exists an orientation θmin=θmax+π/2 for which these quantities are minimum. Second, when an anisotropic medium is oriented along the optimum direction θmax, an increase of the permeability component along that direction will increase the flow and heat transfer rate in a same order while an increase of the other permeability component only has a negligible effect. For the parameter ranges considered in the present study, it was found that the optimum direction is lying between the gravity vector and the dominant flow direction.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The V10 variable gene of the human T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRG-V10), the only member of the subgroup III, has a structural defect which inhibits the splicing of the leader intron. We show that there is a single point mutation in the V10 leader donor splice site responsible for this situation and that this mutation is found in the different populations tested, indicating that V10 corresponds to a pseudogene in humans. We restored the splice site by mutagenesis and obtained correct splicing in vitro. Analysis of the V10 germline gene in different primates reveals functional splice sites in the closest human apes, the chimpanzee and the gorilla. The splice competence of TCRG-V10 in higher primates was addressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from chimpanzee by specific cDNA amplification, and correct splicing of the TCRG-V10 leader intron was found as well as a majority of in frame rearrangements involving only the TCRG-J1 or J2 segments. These results suggest that V10+γ /δ T cells may represent an important subset in the non-human higher primates, contrary to the situation observed in the human.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genetic marker ; Inbred line ; Linkage ; Quantitative trait locus (QTL)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The advent of molecular genetic markers has stimulated interest in detecting linkage between a marker locus and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) because the marker locus, even without direct effect on the quantitative trait, could be useful in increasing the response to selection. A correlation method for detecting and estimating linkage between a marker locus and a QTL is described using selfing and sib-mating populations. Computer simulations were performed to estimate the power of the method, the sample size (N) needed to detect linkage, and the recombination value (r). The power of this method was a function of the expected recombination value E(r), the standardized difference (d) between the QTL genotypic means, and N. The power was highest at complete linkage, decreased with an increase in E(r), and then increased at E(r)=0.5. A larger d and N led to a higher power. The sample size needed to detect linkage was dependent upon E(r) and d. The sample size had a minimum value at E(r)=0, increased with an increase in E(r) and a decrease in d. In general, the r was overestimated. With an increase in d, the r was closer to its expectation. Detection of linkage by the proposed method under incomplete linkage was more efficient than estimation of recombination values. The correlation method and the method of comparison of marker-genotype means have a similar power when there is linkage, but the former has a slightly higher power than the latter when there is no linkage.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsThinopyrum ponticum ; Th. intermedium ; Th. junceum ; Wheat ; BYDV ; Genome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-five partial amphiploids (2n=8x=56), which were derived from hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with either Thinopyrum ponticum (Podpera) Liu & Wang, Th. intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D. Dewey, or Th. junceum (L.) A. Löve, were assayed for resistance to BYDV serotype PAV by slot-blot hybridization with viral cDNA of a partial coat protein gene. Three immune lines were found among seven partial amphiploids involving Th. ponticum. Seven highly resistant lines were found in ten partial amphiploids involving Th. intermedium. None of eight partial amphiploids or 13 addition lines of Chinese Spring –Th. junceum were resistant to BYDV. Genomic in situ hybridization demonstrated that all of the resistant partial amphiploids, except TAF46, carried an alien genome most closely related to St, whether it was derived from Th. ponticum or Th. intermedium. The two partial amphiploids carrying an intact E genome of Th. ponticum are very susceptible to BYDV-PAV. In TAF46, which contains three pairs of St- and four pairs of E-genome chromosomes, the gene for BYDV resistance has been located to a modified 7St chromosome in the addition line L1. This indicates that BYDV resistance in perennial polyploid parents, i.e., Th. ponticum and Th. intermedium, of these partial amphiploids is probably controlled by a gene(s) located on the St-genome chromosome(s).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Key words Microprojectile bombardment ; Nicotiana tabacum ; De-exined pollen ; β-glucuronidase gene ; Green fluorescent protein gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Gene constructs containing the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene under the control of pollen-specific promoter Zm13-260 from maize were introduced by particle bombardment into de-exined pollen of Nicotiana tabacum. The de-exined pollen exhibited transient expression of the GUS or GFP gene as indicated by histochemical and fluorescent assay, respectively. The frequency of de-exined pollen transformation with the GUS or GFP gene was approximately 6 and 3 times higher, respectively, than that of pollen with intact walls, indicating that pollen deprived of the exine barrier responded better to foreign gene transfer than did the original. Cytological observation of GUS-expressing pollen grains showed that introduced gold particles were visible in the cytoplasm and vegetative nucleus as well as in the generative nucleus. GFP-expressing pollen tubes were observed in the style even after pollination.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Thinopyrum ponticum ; Th. intermedium ; Th. junceum ; Wheat ; BYDV ; Genome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-five partial amphiploids (2n=8x=56), which were derived from hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with either Thinopyrum ponticum (Podpera) Liu & Wang, Th. intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D. Dewey, or Th. junceum (L.) A. Löve, were assayed for resistance to BYDV serotype PAV by slot-blot hybridization with viral cDNA of a partial coat protein gene. Three immune lines were found among seven partial amphiploids involving Th. ponticum. Seven highly resistant lines were found in ten partial amphiploids involving Th. intermedium. None of eight partial amphiploids or 13 addition lines of Chinese Spring — Th. junceum were resistant to BYDV. Genomic in situ hybridization demonstrated that all of the resistant partial amphiploids, except TAF46, carried an alien genome most closely related to St, whether it was derived from Th. ponticum or Th. intermedium. The two partial amphiploids carrying an intact E genome of Th. ponticum are very susceptible to BYDV-PAV. In TAF46, which contains three pairs of St- and four pairs of E-genome chromo somes, the gene for BYDV resistance has been located to a modified 7 St chromosome in the addition line L1. This indicates that BYDV resistance in perennial polyploid parents, i.e., Th. ponticum and Th. intermedium, of these partial amphiploids is probably controlled by a gene(s) located on the St-genome chromosome(s).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Mössbauer effect ; other γ-ray spectroscopy ; Phonons and vibrations in crystal lattices ; Conference proceedings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary The phonon energy spectra of a polycrystalline α-Fe foil were observed at 150 K and 300 K by using the nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. In each spectrum, inelastic scattering was observed at both sides of the elastic peak. It was found that the ratio of the elastic-scattering component and the asymmetry of the intensity of the side bands observed at 150 K are larger than those observed at 300 K, respectively. The observed temperature-dependent spectra are in good agreement with the spectra calculated from the phonon energy distribution function. One of the advantageous features of this method is that the excitation of only a specific element is possible. Our results show that this method is applicable to the study of lattice dynamics and opens a new field of the nuclear resonant scattering spectroscopy.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Nitric oxide ; Inflammation ; Gene expression ; Intestine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We addressed the hypothesis that administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) does not result in a sustained suppression of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, because of a compensatory expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). L-NAME was administered in the drinking water (0.1–1.0 mg/ml) for 7 days to guinea pigs and rats. Nitric oxide synthesis was assessed by [1] ex vivo formation of nitrite in blood vessels and intestine [2] tissue levels of cGMP [3] iNOS gene expression by RT-PCR [4] NADPH diaphorase staining [5] direct assessment of NO release in tissue explants using a microelectrode/electrochemical detection system. Chronic L-NAME administration elevated intestinal cGMP and nitrite levels in guinea pigs (p〈0.05). In rats, intestinal nitrite levels were comparable in control and L-NAME treatment groups, whereas direct assessment of NO release defined a marked increase in the L-NAME group. Chronic L-NAME resulted in an induction of iNOS gene expression in rats and guinea pigs and novel sites of NADPH diaphorase staining in the intestine. We conclude that iNOS expression is responsible for a compensatory increase or normalization of NO synthesis during sustained administration of L-NAME.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 66.10. Cb ; 61.70. Tm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The influence of ion implantation on the thermal diffusivities of semiconductors are studied using the mirage effect. The dependences of the thermal diffusivities on the implantation doses are obtained. For silicon wafers implanted by boron, phosphorus and arsenic ions, with constant implantation energy, the thermal diffusivities decrease with increasing dose, when the doses are less than some critical values. The theoretical calculation results by using a one-dimensional multilayer model are in good agreement with the experimental ones. On the other hand, for gallium-arsenide wafers implanted with silicon ions, it is found experimentally that the thermal diffusivity increases with the implantation dose.
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