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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Oncology ; Human Genetics ; Biomedicine ; Human Genetics ; Cancer Research ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Introduction -- Non-mammalian hematopoiesis -- Epigenetic mechanisms regulating mammalian hematopoietic stem cell development and function -- Epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms regulating cell fate decisions and blood cell lineage development -- Epigenetic control of immune cell function -- Subject index
    Abstract: In recent years, great progress has been made in the identification of the molecular players involved in the epigenetic control of gene expression during development. The work of many laboratories has established that regulating the interplay of transcription factors with chromatin components is the major driver of cellular differentiation. Because of their single cell nature and ease of purification, much of what we have learnt about these processes in animals has been delivered based on cellular models within the hematopoietic system. The blood cell system evolved from a few simple cell types in more primitive organisms that provide oxygen transport and carry out phagocytosis into the complex hematopoietic system of mammals, containing many specialized cells types with vastly different functions, such as B cells, T cells, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes. This book describes the intricate processes involved in the development of blood cells across a range of organisms from drosophila and fish at one end, and mammals at the other end. It contains individual chapters devoted to describing the epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in the different organisms and orchestrating the differentiation of a wide variety of cell types. Different chapters describe the function of lymphocytes, macrophages and red blood cells and the molecular players, i.e. transcription factors and the epigenetic regulatory machinery driving their differentiation. Most importantly, the book not only describes normal processes, such as the rearrangements of antigen receptor genes, and the regulation of genes by various mechanisms such as DNA methylation, but also outlines what happens when these processes function abnormally to precipitate diseases such as leukemia and immune disorders
    Pages: XIII, 416 p. 49 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783642451980
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biotechnology ; Agriculture ; Forests and forestry ; Plant breeding ; Renewable energy sources ; Sustainable development ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Forestry ; Plant Breeding/Biotechnology ; Renewable and Green Energy ; Sustainable development ; Biotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783642134401
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  • 3
    Keywords: Medicine ; Gynecology ; Endocrinology ; Reproductive Medicine ; Urology ; Medicine & Public Health ; Gynecology ; Endocrinology ; Reproductive Medicine ; Urology/Andrology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781441984562
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European biophysics journal 23 (1994), S. 1-19 
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Mechanosensitivity ; Mechanotransduction ; Cell membrane complex ; Ion channels ; Modelling of stress-sensitivity ; Lipid matrix ; Cytoskeleton ; Mechano-electric phenomena ; Flexoelectricity ; Model membranes ; Mechanosensors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Physical and biophysical mechanisms of mechano-sensitivity of cell membranes are reviewed. The possible roles of the lipid matrix and of the cytoskeleton in membrane mechanoreception are discussed. Techniques for generation of static strains and dynamic curvatures of membrane patches are considered. A unified model for stress-activated and stress-inactivated ion channels under static strains is described. A review of work on stress-sensitive pores in lipid-peptide model membranes is presented. The possible role of flexoelectricity in mechano-electric transduction, e.g. in auditory receptors is discussed. Studies of flexoelectricity in model lipid membranes, lipid-peptide membranes and natural membranes containing ion channels are reviewed. Finally, possible applications in molecular electronics of mechanosensors employing some of the recognized principles of mechano-electric transduction in natural membranes are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Lipid bilayer membranes ; Locust muscle membranes ; Patch clamp ; Mechano-electric transduction ; Flexoelectricity ; Ion channels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An experimental study of flexoelectricity in model membranes containing ion pores and native membranes containing ion channels has been undertaken with the objective of determining the relationship, if any, between flexoelectricity and ion transport. Model membrane patches containing ion pores induced by a bluegreen algal toxin, microcystin-LR, and locust muscle membrane patches containing potassium channels were studied using patch-clamp techniques. A correspondence was established between the presence of open channels and pores and the amplitude of the 1st harmonic of the total membrane current when the membranes or patches were subjected to pressure oscillations. The 2nd harmonic of the membrane current provided a measure of the amplitude of a membrane curvature induced by pressure, thus making it possible to determine the membrane flexoelectric coefficient. This study shows that flexoelectricity could be an effective driving force for ion transport through membrane pores and channels, thus further highlighting the possible biological significance of this mechano-electric phenomenon.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A familial mutation in SRY, the gene coding for the testis-determining factor TDF, was identified in an XY female with gonadal dysgenesis, her father, her two brothers and her uncle. The mutation consists of a T to C transition in the region of the SRY gene coding for a protein motif known as the high mobility group (HMG) box, a protein domain known to confer DNA-binding specificity on the SRY protein. This point mutation results in the substitution, at amino acid position 109, of a serine residue for phenylalanine, a conserved aromatic residue in almost all HMG box motifs known. This F109S mutation was not found in 176 male controls. When recombinant wildtype SRY and SRYF109S mutant protein were tested in vitro for binding to the target site AAC AAAG, no differences in DNA-binding activity were observed. These results imply that the F109S mutation either is a rare neutral sequence variant, or produces an SRY protein with slightly altered in vivo activity, the resulting sex phenotype depending on the genetic back-ground or environmental factors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The syndrome of 46,XX true hermaphroditism is a clinical condition in which both ovarian and testicular tissue are found in one individual. Both Mullerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. Two alternative mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of testicular tissue in these subjects: (1) translocation of chromosomal material encoding the testicular determination factor (TDF) from the Y to the X chromosome or to an autosome, or (2) an autosomal dominant mutation that permits testicular determination in the absence of TDF. We have investigated five subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism. Four individuals had a normal 46,XX karyotype; one subject (307) had an apparent terminal deletion of the short arm of one X chromosome. Genomic DNA was isolated from these individuals and subjected to Southern blot analysis. Only subject 307 had Y chromosomal sequences that included the pseudoautosomal boundary, SRY (sex-determining region of Y), ZFY (Y gene encoding a zinc finger protein), and DXYS5 (an anonymous locus on the distal short arm of Y) but lacked sequences for DYZ5 (proximal short arm of Y) and for the long arm probes DYZ1 and DYZ2. The genomic DNA of the other four subjects lacked detectable Y chromosomal sequences when assayed either by Southern blotting or after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Our data demonstrate that 46,XX true hermaphroditism is a genetically heterogeneous condition, some subjects having TDF sequences but most not. The 46,XX subjects without SRY may have a mutation of an autosomal gene that permits testicular determination in the absence of TDF.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructural relationships between γ-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons and other neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and motoneurons of the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor vagal nucleus (DMVN), were examined by electron microscopic (EM) immunogold labelling with an anti-GABA antiserum on brain stem sections in which vagal motoneurons and vagal afferent fibres were labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP was applied to the cervical vagus or the cardiac vagal branch of anaesthetized cats. After 24–48 h survival, brains were glutaraldehyde-fixed and a stable HRP-tetramethylbenzidine reaction product compatible with EM processing was revealed on 250 μm vibratome sections. Following osmium postfixation, dehydration and resin embedding, GABA-ir was localized on ultrathin sections by an immunogold technique. GABA-ir axon terminals, heavily and specifically labelled with gold particles, were very numerous within NTS, DMVN and NA. All terminals contained small, clear, pleomorphic vesicles and a few also contained larger dense cored vesicles. The density of gold particles over clear vesicles, dense cored vesicles and mitochondria was significantly greater than over the cytoplasm of these terminals. GABA-ir synapses were found on the soma and dendrites of neurons, but rarely on other axon terminals within NTS, where GABA-ir cell bodies and dendrites were also seen. These received synaptic contacts from both GABA-ir terminals and from HRP-labelled vagal afferents. In both the DMVN and NA, similar GABA-ir synapses were present on both the soma and dendrites of HRP-labelled motoneurons. GABA synapses were also present on other cell types in DMVN. These observations provide an anatomical basis for a GABAergic inhibition of neurons forming the central pathways of cardiovascular and other autonomic reflexes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Induction of testis development in mammals requires the presence of the Y-chromosome gene SPY. This gene must exert its effect by interacting with other genes in the sex-determination pathway. Cloning of a translocation chromosome breakpoint from a sex-reversed patient ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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