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  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (3)
  • United States
  • 1990-1994  (3)
  • 1985-1989  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer ; census ; epidemiology ; methodology ; marital status ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In registry-based population studies on marital status in relation to cancer, incidence rates sometimes have been calculated using marital status-specific populations that have been estimated by interpolation and extrapolation from census data as a denominator. Alternatively, other cancers from the same registry have been used to estimate the proportion of the population in each marital-status category in the calculation of the relative risk (RR) of a given cancer. Using cancer registry data from four United States populations for the years 1979–87, we compared the relative incidence estimated using each of the two methods. For selected cancers diagnosed during 1979–81, the age-adjusted risks of never-married Black persons were 1.5 to 2.2 times those of married persons when the population size was estimated from census data. The corresponding RRs were 0.7 to 1.1 when the ‘control’ cancers were used. Among Whites, the differences between the two methods were about 20 to 30 percent. For both races, the difference between the methods was greater still for the years for which we relied on extrapolation to estimate the population (1981–87). The differences between the risk estimates from the two methods may be related to underenumeration in the census, inconsistent definitions of marital status between cancer registries and the census, errors in the extrapolation of the population, and/or the possible association of the incidence of ‘control’ cancers with marital status. In the US, while each method has some potential for bias, we believe that the likelihood of bias is relatively greater using the censusbased method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer surveillance system ; cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia ; cutaneous melanoma ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulated by a recent report from a Norwegian pathology institute of an excess risk of melanoma among women with cervical neoplasia, we analyzed the relevant data from a population-based cancer registry serving western Washington State (United States). Among 11,693 women diagnosed with cervicalintra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) between 1974 and 1989 who were followed-up for at least a year, 14 cases of cutaneous melanoma were identified, in comparison with 13.7 cases expected (relative risk=1.0,95 percent confidence interval=0.5-1.7) based on the rates of melanoma among all women who resided in this area. While these results are at odds with those recently reported from the pathology institute, they are similar to those obtained in previous cancer-registry studies in several countries, which found little or no excess occurrence of melanoma following cervical cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The ratio of the fragment ions at m/z 122 and m/z 123 in the positive ion fast atom bombardment or secondary ion mass spectra of thiamine hydrochloride varies with sample preparation and experimental conditions. For all mass spectra that contained significant abundances of matrix (S) ions [S + H]+, the fragment at m/z 123 is the more abundant of the two ions. If [S + H]+ ions are not observed in the mass spectrum under the conditions selected, the ion at m/z 122 is more abundant. This correlation suggests that hydrogen transfer to the fragment ion occurs in the gas phase, with the composition of the ion-solvent cluster ions in the selvedge region being the key factor. The ratio of the fragment ions at m/z 123 and m/z 122 is thus an indicator of the extent of protonation in the selvedge, the region immediately above the solvent surface created by primary particle bombardment.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Electrolytic conductivity detection ; Nitrogen-mode optimization ; Open tubular columns ; Food contaminants ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The combination of open tubular column gas chromatography with electrolytic conductivity detection has been evaluated for the determination of nitrogen-containing pesticide residues in food extracts. Optimization of the column position at the column-detector interface was crucial to the successful operation of the detector. The signal-to-noise ratio and response stability of the detector are greatly influenced by the composition of the electrolyte solvent. Large volume splitless injections using retention gaps and optimized detector operating conditions enabled pesticide residues in food extracts to be determined at sub parts-per-million levels. Although the electrolytic conductivity detector is less sensitive than the thermionic ionization detector, its greater nitrogen selectivity can he crucial to the determination of nitrogen-containing contaminants in food extracts, particularly in complex mixtures where phosphorus-containing contaminants or matrix compounds are also present.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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