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  • Chemistry  (12)
  • 1990-1994  (10)
  • 1975-1979  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The transesterification reaction in the molten state of ester groups of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers and ethylene acrylic ester (EMA) copolymers has been used to crosslink the chains of this polymeric system. The relative EVA copolymers (or EMA copolymers) concentration dependence of the network formation by co-crosslinking of EVA/EMA miscible blends has been assessed. EVA/EMA networks were characterized by swelling experiments, rheological measurements, and determination of the extent of the reaction through a chromatographic technique. All results can be compared in a master curve. The influence of the polydispersity and the microstructure of EVA and EMA samples was put in evidence. On the other hand, a scaling law (v2∼Mc-3/5) was observed in agreement with predictions of the Flory-Rhener expression. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The transesterification reaction catalyzed by dibutyltin oxide has been used to crosslink miscible blends (at about 200°C) of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) copolymers. Then, microwave heating at 2.45 GHz with the fundamental TE01 mode was used for activation of this crosslinking reaction. The microwave treatment was carried out in a continuous process through a resonant cavity on line with a twin screw extruder equipped with a strip die or a circular die, which imposed the shape of the samples in the waveguide. Therefore, a shape factor due to the geometry of the samples and their orientation with respect to the electromagnetic field was defined. Last, this technique was applied to the microwave crosslinking of an EVA/EMA blend dispersed in a polypropylene matrix and consequently offers a new route to control the morphology of the polymer blends.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie 47 (1975), S. 61-77 
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: When the ozonisation of bulk or suspension poly(vinylchloride) is carried out in tetrachloroethane solution between 0-120°C the molecular weight decreases continuously and the rate of breaking of chains deduced from the intrinsic viscosity variation is constant under isothermal conditions. Whatever the time and temperature of ozonisation may be, at every breaking, β and α chlorinated acid groups are introduced which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, high resolution NMR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration in dimethylformamide. Besides these functions, peroxide groups have also been identified and their concentration has been determined for different times and temperatures of ozonisation.This study permits to propose two mechanisms to explain the breaking of chains. The first implies the previous dehydrochlorination of the polymer and the second the formation of unstable peroxides which by decomposition cause the breaking of chains.
    Notes: Quelle que soit la nature du polychlorure de vinyle (masse ou suspension) l'action de l'ozone en milieu homogène dans le tétrachloroéthane provoque la décroissance continue de la masse moléculaire dans le domaine de température 0-120°C et la vitesse de coupure des chaînes déduite des variations de viscosité est constante en conditions isothermes.Quels que soient le temps et la température d'ozonisation, à chaque point de coupure apparaissent des fonctions acides α et β chlorées qui ont été caractérisées par spectroscopie infra-rouge, RMN haute résolution et dosage potentiométrique en milieu diméthylformamide. Outre ces fonctions, des peroxydes ont égé également identifiés dans le polymère et on a suivi leur concentration en fonction des conditions d'ozonisation.Cette étude permet de proposer deux mécanismes pour expliquer la coupure des chaînes, l'un suppose une déhydrochloruration préalable du polymère et l'autre la formation de peroxydes instables qui en se décomposant provoqueraient la coupure des chaînes.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 30 (1990), S. 1544-1550 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Plastic profile die design is a complex task because of cross section area and shape changes occurring after die exit. Dimensions of the profile are increased by the extrudate swell phenomenon and decreased by drawdown and shrinkage. An experimental study on the effect of processing conditions on extrudate swell and on the shape of a rectangular profile was done for rigid poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and high density polyethylene, HDPE, resins. Extrudate swell was found to be a strong decreasing function of residence time in the die and also, for short dies, of entrance geometry. For PVC, equilibrium swell increased with melt temperature. The differences in swelling for the two polymers are explained with the help of creep/recovery data obtained on a stress rheometer. Drawdown, die land length, and melt temperature were shown to have an important effect on the shape of a rectangular profile. Decreasing the die land and increasing the melt temperature had the effect of increasing preferably the thickness while drawdown, by inhibiting the swelling, decreased the thickness.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The stereoselective substitution of chlorine atoms was used to graft anthracene and phenyl groups onto the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) backbone as ultraviolet (UV) tracers for the assessment of the residence time distribution (R.T.D) of PVC chains during the extrusion of rigid and plasticized PVC. The residence time distribution obtained using these-grafted tracers was compared with that obtained using a free UV tracer (anthracene). The polymeric tracer had a narrower R.T.D and a shorter mean residence time. This difference of behavior between a free and grafted tracers was attributed to the compatibility of these tracers with the PVC.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Transesterification may be used to crosslink a copolymer such as ethylene vinyl acetate with poly(ethylene acrylate-co-propylene) in the presence of dibutyltin oxide as a catalyst. A rheological study of the mechanism of this exchange reaction has been made: The kinetics of the crosslinking reaction was determined by studying the time and temperature dependence of the dynamic storage modulus G′(t, T)ω. Kinetic curves obtained for different reactive blends (EVA, PP/EVA, and PPf/EVA) allowed for the evaluation of the activation energy of the reaction and, thus, specified the appropriate parameters (temperature and time) for carrying out this reaction in a molten state.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Brookfield, Conn. : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0193-7197
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Substitution reactions are an appropriate way to attach chemical functions to polymer chains for improving properties and to diversify the application of polymer materials. The stereoselective substitution of chlorine atoms affords a useful way to plasticize polyvinychloride (PVC) by attaching appropriate plasticizing functions (ester group) such as isooctylthiosalicylate. Thus, the substitution of chlorine atoms of PVC by reactant bearing plasticizing groups was carried out in a continuous mixing apparatus such as a twin screw extruder. This continuous chemical engineering process taking place in the extruder is studied as the function of the residence time distribution (RTD) measured by a UV method. This function combined with the kinetics of the chemical reaction allows to define a new function G as the distribution of the extent of conversion by analogy with the RTD function.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In this paper, we summarize our five-year observation of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (2-D PAGE) analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) light (L) chain patterns on serum/plasma and/or purified human Ig, and compare this technique with agarose electrophoresis and/or immunofixation examination. Polyclonal Ig L chains were seen as large “fuzzy” areas with several zones of high density. The majority (71%) of the monoclonal Ig L chains of monoclonal gammopathy detected by conventional electrophoresis appeared as a single large and well-defined spot on 2-D PAGE analysis, with the remaining appearing as multiple spots. The presence of oligoclonal Ig, reflected by multiple spots in 2-D PAGE, and several bands in immunofixation, was observed in 5 of 26 patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and in 5 patients with tumors. In the majority (77%) of hypergamma-globulinemia, L chains appeared as a wide spread of small and well-defined spots in 2-D PAGE analysis. This pattern suggested oligoclonal Ig-secreting B cell clone expansion, and corresponding abnormalities were not detected with immunofixation. 2-D PAGE analysis also detected oligoclonal Ig expansions whereas conventional electrophoretic examination was normal in 10 additional patients after bone marrow transplantation, and in 6 of 10 immunocompetent patients with acute severe infections. Analysis of the Ig L chain pattern of a severe combined immune-deficient mouse populated with human peripheral blood leukocytes confirmed the skewed human Ig production in the model. In summary, 2-D PAGE appears to be a sensitive tool for the analysis of Ig diversity in various clinical situations.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: New methacrylic copolymers with prospective second-order nonlinear optical effects are synthesized by radical copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with conjugated zwitterionic methacrylate monomers (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-[1-(ω-methacryloyloxyalkyl)-4-pyridino]phenolates,1a and 1b). These monomers are obtained via a multi-step reaction. First, 4-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)pyridine (2) is electrosynthesized by an SRN1 reaction in liquid ammonia. Then, this pyridine derivative is N-alkylated by an ω-bromoalkyl methacrylate (5a or 5b) which, in its turn, is obtained by esterification of an ω-bromoalcohol and methacryloyl chloride.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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