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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Hymenoscyphus ericae ; Oidiodendron griseum ; Paxillus involutus ; Rhizopogon roseolus ; Suillus bovinus ; Lignin degradation ; Ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi ; Soil ; Organic matter ; Decomposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ability of ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi to utilize 14C-labelled lignin and O14CH3-labelled dehydropolymer of coniferyl alcohol as sole C sources has been assessed in pure culture studies. The results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are more effective in degrading lignin than ectomycorrhizal fungi. Amongst the ectomycorrhizal fungi the facultative mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degraded lignin more readily than those which are normally considered to be obligately mycorrhizal fungi such as Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus. The importance of these lignin degrading capabilities is discussed in relation to the predominance of specific mycorrhiza forms along a gradient of increasing organic matter and hence lignin content of soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Methamidophos ; Pesticide ; Phosphoramidates ; Organophosphorus ; Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) ; Delayed neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The interaction with neural neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vivo of methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphorothioamidate), its resolved stereoisomers and five higher O-alkyl homologues has been examined along with the ability of these compounds to cause organophosphorus-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) in adult hens. For the lower homologues AChE was more sensitive than NTE and it was impossible to achieve high inhibition of NTE in vivo without both prophylaxis and therapy against acute anticholinesterase effects; for then-hexyl homologue high inhibition of NTE could be achieved without obvious anticholinesterase effects and spontaneous reactivation of inhibited AChE was seen as in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose ofl(−) methamidophos or of the ethyl oriso-propyl homologues did not inhibit NTE more than 60%, and surviving birds did not develop OPIDP. Then-propyl,n-butyl andn-hexyl compounds caused typical OPIDP at doses causing a peak of 70–95% inhibition of NTE in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve soon after dosing. Racemic methamidophos caused unusually mild OPIDP associated with very high inhibition of NTE at doses estimated to be 〉8 times the unprotected LD50 and thed-(+) isomer caused OPIDP at about 5−7× LD50. Clinical effects correlated with histopathology in 19 out of 20 examined birds. In contrast to results of many previous studies with organophosphates and phosphonates, all these cases of OPIDP were associated with formation of inhibited NTE which could be reactivated ex vivo by treatment of autopsy tissue with KF solution. It is not clear whether “aging” of inhibited NTE had occurred but with less associated stabilisation of the enzyme-phosphorus bond or whether, even without aging, the unusual N-unsubstituted phosphoramidate caused sufficient disturbance in or near the NTE target to initiate the same degenerative process as that caused typically by generation of “aged” organophosphorylated NTE.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Three polymorphic markers have been used to improve the genetic map of the region Xp22.1-p22.2, which contains the HYP (hypophosphataemic rickets) locus. DXS365 gave no recombinants with HYP, with a peak Lod score of 5.4 at θ = 0.0. A microsatellite marker mPA274 was derived for the DXS274 locus; it detects five alleles with a polymorphism information content of 0.55. Combining information from this microsatellite and the original DXS274 marker, probe CRI-L1391, the peak Lod score for DXS274 against HYP was 9.6 at θ = 0.02. A microsatellite associated with the DXS207 locus (mPA207) gave a peak lod score against HYP of 4.7 at θ = 0.14. A consideration of key recombinants and multilocus analysis suggests the gene order: Xpter-DXS207-DXS43-DXS197-(DXS365, HYP)-DXS274-DXS41-Xcen.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We present the results of an international collaborative study aimed at estimating the ratio of male to female mutation rates in Duchenne muscular dystrophy based on the method of C. Müller and T. Grimm. With a sample size of 295, this ratio is found to be very close to 1, thus giving evidence for equal mutation rates in males and females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper presents three markers, 16D/E, pHMAI (DXS208), and CRI-L1391 (DXS274), that show close linkage for X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (HYP). DXS274 is closely linked to HYP (θ max= 0.00, Zmax = 4.20), and DXS41 (99.6), (θ max= 0.00, Zmax = 5.20). Marker 16D/E maps distal to the disease locus (θ max= 0.05, Zmax = 3.11). The pHMAI probe recognises the same restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) as 99.6. Multipoint analysis suggests that the most probable order of loci is Xpter-(DXS43, 16D/E)-HYP-DXS274-(DXS208, DXS41)-Xcen. The location of DXS274 distal to HYP cannot be excluded, as no recombinants were observed between DXS274 and HYP, or between DXS274 and DXS41/DXS208. One of the families contains a large number of recombinants, four of which are double recombinants. This most probably means that the disease in this family maps elsewhere on the X chromosome or on an autosome, indicating locus heterogeneity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Neuropathy target esterase from hen brains was radiolabelled at the active site with [3H]diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate. The labelled protein was purified by differential centrifugation and Nonidet P40 solubilization, detergent phase partitioning, anion exchange, and preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The volatilizable counts assay and analytical SDS-PAGE were used to monitor the protein. The 150-kDa subunit polypeptide appears as a single band on analytical SDS-PAGE.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Renin synthesis and secretion were studied in Balb/ c mice with a denervated left kidney.2. Denervation inhibited renin secretion.3. Denervation reduced the renal renin content.4. Denervation reduced renal renin mRNA.5. Renal denervation inhibits renin secretion by blocking the synthetic system prior to mRNA formation.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 47 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Humans have a haemochorial, villous placenta. Uterine blood passes through maternal sinuses, bathing placental villi through which fetal blood circulates. Blood flow through each circulation is high and vascular resistance low. This haemodynamic situation is essential for efficient placental function.2. The low placental vascular resistance is due to a lack of nervous influences together with pregnancy-induced changes promoting vasodilatation. Increases occur in output of the vasodilators prostacyclin and nitric oxide and also in membrane sodium pump activity.3. Many autacoids are present in umbilical blood. Fetal vessels of the placenta develop intense vasoconstriction in the presence of some autacoids, such as thromboxane A2 and prostaglandins F2α and E2, and respond weakly to others, such as angiotensin II and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Nevertheless, vasodilator influences predominate.4. The diseases of pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation are associated with reduced output of nitric oxide and prostacyclin and with increased production of thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1. These changes promote vasoconstriction, increased vascular sensitivity to vasoconstrictor stimuli, platelet aggregation and intravascular coagulation, retarding blood flow and feto-placental growth.5. Aspirin and glyceryl trinitrate have been investigated for possible therapeutic use in pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation. Improved drug therapy is likely as knowledge increases of the importance of autacoids in normal placental function and in the changes that occur during disease.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 122 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The administration of Factor XIII (FXIII) produces a beneficial effect on the skin lesions in about 50% of the treated patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). The effect of FXIII on various skin fibroblast functions (proliferation, attachment, biosynthetic activity and mechanical properties) was investigated in vitro using normal and PSS strains. In cell culture, most of the PSS fibroblast strains synthesized excessive amounts of collagen. Other cell functions such as adhesion to collagen I or III, to fibronectin, retraction of collagen lattices, proliferation in low serum concentration and degradation of newly synthesized collagen were not significantly different. The addition of FXIII (i U/ml) inhibited the synthesis of collagen by normal fibroblasts and reduced it in PSS fibroblasts to a level similar to that of normal fibroblasts. This effect was observed for cells cultured on plastic or in a collagen lattice. In the latter, an increased amount of collagen degradation was observed. No significant effect of FXIII on the other cell functions was noted. Excessive collagen production by PSS fibroblasts can be repressed by FXIII in vitro by at least two distinct mechanisms: a reduction of collagen synthesis and an increased degradation of the newly synthesized collagen.
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