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  • Estonia  (1)
  • geographical differences  (1)
  • Springer  (2)
  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Drug use ; Estonia ; Nordic countries ; geographical difference ; wholesale data
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Wholesale data from Estonia covering all drug supplies during the period 1983–1989 have been studied using the defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. The use of all major pharmacological groups was compared with the corresponding statistics from the Nordic countries. The patterns of drug use showed large differences between the Nordic countries and Estonia. Many drugs were used in large quantities in Estonia although they are no longer considered to be first-line medications in the Nordic countries because of their high risk to benefit ratio. These included the pyrazolones (phenylbutazone, aminophenazone), chloramphenicol, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and Rauwolfia alkaloids. On the other hand, several groups of effective drugs were available in Estonia only in limited amounts, including the histamine (H2) receptor antagonists, hormonal contraceptives, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and cephalosporins. There were also differences in the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure lowering agents, and anti-asthmatic drugs. Amongst the factors influencing drug usage it appears that economic status, the ordering and invoicing routines of the pharmaceutical services, and therapeutic traditions were the main reasons for the differences found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Psychotropic drugs ; drug utilisation ; geographical differences ; prescribing habits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Marked differences in the utilisation of psychotropic drugs between the three major urban areas in Sweden were recorded from four sources of information: drug supplies from wholesalers to pharmacies, drug supplies to hospitals for in-patient use, drugs sold on prescription for out-patient use, and out-patient consultation and drug prescribing as recorded by physicians. The total sales of psychotropics in the counties of Gothenburg (110,8 defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day) and Malmö (102,1) were much higher than in the county of Stockholm (73,4), with about 25% of the difference being accounted for by diazepam. Differences in the total sales of psychotropics were not explained by any differences in hospital sales, which amounted to about 10% in all counties. Prescription sales differed due to the higher average number of DDD (defined daily doses) per prescription in Gothenburg and Malmö than in Stockholm (total psychotropics 8 and 15%, respectively), and especially because of the higher number of prescriptions per inhabitant (about 40 and 30–35%, respectively). There was no substantial difference in the pattern of diagnoses between areas, but there was a noticeable difference with regard to prescriber category, as psychiatrists accounted for more of the prescriptions in Stockholm than in Gothenburg and Malmö. The results raise questions about over- and under-treatment of mental disorders and about abuse of drugs. In order to explain the geographical differences in psychotropic drug sales morbidity patterns and prescribing practices should be further explored.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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