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  • Hansenula polymorpha  (8)
  • 21.60.Ev  (1)
  • 1990-1994  (9)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Peroxisomes ; Targeting signals ; Yeast ; Hansenula polymorpha
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and methanol oxidase (MOX) are the major enzyme constituents of the peroxisomal matrix in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha when grown on methanol as a sole carbon source. In order to characterize their topogenic signals the localization of truncated polypeptides and hybrid proteins was analysed in transformed yeast cells by subcellular fractionation and electron microscopy. The C-terminal part of DAS, when fused to the bacterial β-lactamase or mouse dihydrofolate reductase, directed these hybrid polypeptides to the peroxisome compartment. The targeting signal was further delimited to the extreme C-terminus, comprising the sequence N-K-L-COOH, similar to the recently identified and widely distributed peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) S-K-L-COOH in firefly luciferase. By an identical approach, the extreme C-terminus of MOX, comprising the tripeptide A-R-F-COOH, was shown to be the PTS of this protein. Furthermore, on fusion of a C-terminal sequence from firefly luciferase including the PTS, β-lactamase was also imported into the peroxisomes of H. polymorpha. We conclude that, besides the conserved PTS (or described variants), other amino acid sequences with this function have evolved in nature.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 21.60.Ev ; 27.90.+b
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Positive and negative parity bands have been followed up to 10+ (possibly 12+) and 11− in224Ra and are compared to the corresponding bands in the isotone226Th. If a constant value of the intrinsic quadrupole moment is assumed for allE2 transitions in224Ra theE1/E2 branching ratios are consistent with an intrinsic dipole moment of ¦Q1¦=0.032(3)e·fm. This small value, as compared to ¦Q1¦=0.30(2)e·fm for226Th, can be explained by an almost complete cancellation of large positive liquid-drop and negative shell-model contributions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 6 (1990), S. 87-97 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Hansenula polymorpha ; methylotrophic yeast ; microbodies ; peroxisome-deficient mutants ; alcohol oxidase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: As a first step in a genetic approach towards understanding peroxisome biogenesis and function, we have sought to isolate mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha which are deficient in peroxisomes. A collection of 260 methanol-utilization-defective strains was isolated and screened for the ability to utilize a second compound, ethanol, the metabolism of which involves peroxisomes. Electron microscopical investigations of ultrathin sections of selected pleiotropic mutants revealed two strains which were completely devoid of peroxisomes. In both, different peroxisomal matrix enzymes were active but located in the cytosol; these included catalase, alcohol oxidase, malate synthase and isocitrate lyase.Subsequent backcrossing experiments revealed that for all crosses involving both strains, the methanol- and ethanol utilizing-deficient phenotypes segregated independently of each other, indicating that different gene mutations were responsible for these phenotypes. The phenotype of the backcrossed peroxisome-deficient derivates was identical: defective in the ability to utilize methanol but capable of growth on other carbon sources, including ethanol.The mutations complemented and therefore were recessive mutations in different genes.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Hansenula polymorpha ; alcohol oxidase ; amine oxidase ; choline ; peroxisome-deficient mutant ; enzyme assembly ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have studied the expression of alcohol oxidase (AO) in a peroxisome-deficient mutant strain of Hansenula polymorpha. High levels of octameric, active AO (up to 3·0 U/mg protein) were detected in cells grown at low dilution rates in a glucose-limited chemostat in the presence of choline as the sole nitrogen source. Monomeric or other intermediate forms of AO were not detected in the mutant strain. This indicated that assembly of the protein into active octameric molecules in the cytosol was as efficient as in wild-type cells where this process is confined to the peroxisomal matrix. At relatively low rates of expression (less than 1 U/mg protein) AO was localized throughout the cytosol and, surprisingly, was also present inside the nucleus. However, at enhanced levels large crystalloids were formed. Generally one crystalloid was observed per cell, whereas smaller ones were occasionally found in developing buds. Also large crystalloids have been observed inside the nucleus. These crystalloids were not surrounded by a membrane. Based on the morphology of the molecules that constituted these crystalloids and the results of (immuno)cytochemical experiments we conclude that the crystalloids are composed of octameric AO molecules, arranged in a regular lattice, identical to the 3-dimensional architecture previously described for the crystalline matrix of peroxisomes in methanol-grown wild type cells of H. polymorpha. Attempts to purify the crystalloids by conventional fractionation methods failed, due to their apparent fragility; however, (immuno)cytochemical experiments revealed that catalase and dihydroxyacetone synthase were also associated with these structures.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; Hansenula polymorpha ; microbodies ; biogenesis ; PER genes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the course of our studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in peroxisome biogenesis, we have isolated several mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha impaired in the import of peroximal matrix proteins. These mutants are characterized by the presence of small intact peroxisomes, while the bulk of the peroxisomal matrix protein is not imported and resides in the cytosol (Pim- phenotype). Genetic analysis of back-crossed mutants revealed five different complementation groups, which were designated PERI-PER5. Mapping studies to determine the linkage relationships indicated that the observed Pim- phenotypes were determined by single recessive nuclear mutations.The different mutants had comparable phenotypes: (i) they were impaired to utilize methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy but grew well on various other compounds, including nitrogen sources, the metabolism of which is known to be mediated by peroxisome-borne enzymes in wild-type cells; (ii) all peroxisomal enzymes tested were induced, assembled and activated as in wild-type cells although their activities varied between the different representative mutants; (iii) all peroxisomal proteins, whether constitutive or inducible, were found both in the cytosol and in the small peroxisomes. These results suggest that a general, major import mechanism is affected in all mutants.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Peroxisomes ; oleic acid ; β-oxidation ; membrane proliferation ; Hansenula polymorpha ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We studied the physiological responses of Hansenula polymorpha during adaptation of cells to oleic acid-containing media. Growth experiments indicated that the organism was unable to use oleic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy. However, upon incubation of glucose-grown cells in mineral media containing oleic acid, activities of various enzymes of the β-oxidation pathway were induced. These enzymes were localized in microbodies together with alcohol oxidase. Furthermore, a drastic increase in phospholipid content of the cells was observed; this was due to a rapid proliferation of membranes. These consisted of a variable number of membranous layers which were continuous with the peroxisomal membrane. Upon continued incubation, the membrane proliferations extended and large compartments were formed. This process was dependent on the presence of peroxisomes in the cells since it was not observed in peroxisome-deficient mutant strains of H. polymorpha. The newly formed membranous compartments differed from peroxisomes since they did not contain peroxisomal matrix proteins; these were confined to the single enlarged organelle which was incorporated in the membranous structure and characterized by a large alcohol oxidase crystalloid. The membranous compartments are considered to be whole entities since they could not be separated from the peroxisomes by common cell fraction methods; also they were degraded entirely after a shift of cells to glucose-excess condition.Freeze fracturing reveled that the substructure of the membranes greatly resembled that of normal peroxisomal membranes. Since a distinct enhancement of different peroxisomal membrane proteins was observed during the initial hours after the shift, we assume that exposure of H. polymorpha to acid lead to a drastic overproduction of peroxisomal membranes.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Hansenula polymorpha ; peroxisomes ; amine oxidase ; peroxisomal targeting signal ; homologous recombination ; integration ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Amine oxidase (AMO) is a peroxisomal matrix protein of Hansenula polymorpha, which is induced during growth of the yeast in media containing primary amines as a sole nitrogen source. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein contains an SRL sequence at nine amino acids from the C-terminus. In this study, we have examined the possible role of the SRL motif in sorting of AMO to peroxisomes by mutating the corresponding gene sequence. For this purpose, we have developed a DNA construct that is specifically integrated into the AMO locus of the H. polymorpha genome, placing the mutant gene under the control of the endogenous AMO promoter and eliminating expression of the wild-type gene. Analysis of a stable transformant, containing the desired gene configuration, showed that mutation of the C-terminal sequence neither interfered with correct targeting of the protein into the peroxisome nor displayed significant effects on its activity. From this, it was concluded that the SRL-containing C-terminus is not essential for peroxisomal targeting of AMO in H. polymorpha.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Transformation ; Electroporation ; Methylotrophic yeasts ; Hansenula polymorpha ; Pichia methanolica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A highly-efficient method for transformation of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been developed. Routinely, transformation frequencies of up to 1.7×106/μg plasmid DNA were obtained by applying an electric pulse of the exponential decay type of 7.5 kV/cm to a highly-concentrated cell mixture during 5 ms. Efficient transformation was dependent on: (1) pretreatment of the cells with the reducing agent dithiotreitol, (2) the use of sucrose as an osmotic stabilizer in an ionic electroporation buffer, and (3) the use of cells grown to the mid-logarithmic phase. Important parameters for optimizing the transformation frequencies were field strength, pulse duration, and cell concentration during the electric pulse. In contrast to electrotransformation protocols described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida maltosa, transformation frequencies (transformants per μg DNA) for H. polymorpha remained high when large amounts (up to 10μg) of plasmid DNA were added. This feature renders this procedure pre-eminently advantageous for gene cloning experiments when high numbers of transformants are needed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Hansenula polymorpha ; Peroxisomes ; Peroxisome function ; Peroxisome-deficient mutant ; Methanol metabolism ; Continuous cultures ; Mixed-substrates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have studied methanol-utilization in a peroxisome-deficient (PER) mutant of Hansenula polymorphoa. In spite of the fact that in carbon-limited chemostat cultures under induced conditions the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism were present at wild-type (WT) levels, this mutant is unable to grow on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. Addition of methanol to glucose-limited (SR=12.5mM) chemostat cultures of the PER mutant only resulted in an increase in yield when small amounts were used (up to 22.5 mM). At increasing amounts however, a gradual decrease in cell density was observed which, at 80 mM methanol in the feed, had dropped below the original value of the glucose-limited culture. This reduction in yield was not observed when increasing amounts of formate instead of methanol were used as supplements for the glucose-limited mutant culture and also not in WT cells, used as control in these experiments. The effect of addition of methanol to a glucose-limited PER culture was also studied in the transient state during adaptation of the cells to methanol. The enzyme patterns obtained suggested that the ultimate decrease in yield observed at enhanced methanol concentrations was due to an inefficient methanolmetabolism as a consequence of the absence of peroxisomes. The absence of intact peroxisomes results in two major problems namely i) in H2O2-metabolism, which most probably is no longer mediated by catalase and ii) the inability of the cell to control the fluxes of formaldehyde, generated from methanol. The energetic consequences of this metabolism, compared to the WT situation with intact peroxisomes, are discussed.
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