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  • 1
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    Royal Society of Chemistry
    Call number: C0300:188
    Pages: viii, 239 p.
    ISBN: 0851868770
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    C0300:188 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Psychotropic drugs ; drug utilisation ; geographical differences ; prescribing habits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Marked differences in the utilisation of psychotropic drugs between the three major urban areas in Sweden were recorded from four sources of information: drug supplies from wholesalers to pharmacies, drug supplies to hospitals for in-patient use, drugs sold on prescription for out-patient use, and out-patient consultation and drug prescribing as recorded by physicians. The total sales of psychotropics in the counties of Gothenburg (110,8 defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day) and Malmö (102,1) were much higher than in the county of Stockholm (73,4), with about 25% of the difference being accounted for by diazepam. Differences in the total sales of psychotropics were not explained by any differences in hospital sales, which amounted to about 10% in all counties. Prescription sales differed due to the higher average number of DDD (defined daily doses) per prescription in Gothenburg and Malmö than in Stockholm (total psychotropics 8 and 15%, respectively), and especially because of the higher number of prescriptions per inhabitant (about 40 and 30–35%, respectively). There was no substantial difference in the pattern of diagnoses between areas, but there was a noticeable difference with regard to prescriber category, as psychiatrists accounted for more of the prescriptions in Stockholm than in Gothenburg and Malmö. The results raise questions about over- and under-treatment of mental disorders and about abuse of drugs. In order to explain the geographical differences in psychotropic drug sales morbidity patterns and prescribing practices should be further explored.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Percutaneous drainage ; Radiologic guidance ; Pleural emyemas/abscesses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Radiologically guided percutaneous catheter drainage was used in 38 patients to treat pleural empyemas (35 patients) and pulmonary abscesses (3 patients). Drainage was successful in 85.7% of empyemas including 11 cases with fistulous communications. Three percutaneously drained pulmonary abscesses required subsequent lobectomy. One patient died during the drainage procedure due to sepsis. No major complications related to the drainage procedure were observed. Guided percutaneous drainage proved to be a safe and successful alternative to closed drainage of pleural fluid collections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antibiotics ; gastric surgery ; drug utilization ; bacterial susceptibility ; septic complications ; nosocomial infection ; hospital treatment ; community treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationship between hopsital and catchment area ultilization of antimicrobial agents and the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from primary infections has been studied after 750 gastric operations performed between 1972 and 1986 at the Huddinge University Hospital. Over 80% of the antibiotics were used in the catchment area. Penicillins (G and V) overall were the most commonly used drugs and comprised 37% of the total antibiotic consumption in 1977–1986. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics dominated throughout the period under investigation. No change in the bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents was found over time. Many strains of Klebsiella/Enterobacter and E. coli resistant to ampicillin and tetracyclines were recovered throughout the period under investigation. No aerobic Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to gentamicin. All Bacteroides strains except two were sensitive to cefoxitin. Tetracyclines and ampicillin/amoxycillin were mainly used in the catchment area, and cefoxitin and aminoglycosides were almost exclusively used in the hospital. Antimicrobial agents primarily used for out-patients in the catchment area seemed to have more influence on the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from postoperative infections than agents primarily used in the hospital.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Drug use ; Estonia ; Nordic countries ; geographical difference ; wholesale data
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Wholesale data from Estonia covering all drug supplies during the period 1983–1989 have been studied using the defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. The use of all major pharmacological groups was compared with the corresponding statistics from the Nordic countries. The patterns of drug use showed large differences between the Nordic countries and Estonia. Many drugs were used in large quantities in Estonia although they are no longer considered to be first-line medications in the Nordic countries because of their high risk to benefit ratio. These included the pyrazolones (phenylbutazone, aminophenazone), chloramphenicol, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and Rauwolfia alkaloids. On the other hand, several groups of effective drugs were available in Estonia only in limited amounts, including the histamine (H2) receptor antagonists, hormonal contraceptives, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and cephalosporins. There were also differences in the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure lowering agents, and anti-asthmatic drugs. Amongst the factors influencing drug usage it appears that economic status, the ordering and invoicing routines of the pharmaceutical services, and therapeutic traditions were the main reasons for the differences found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Detrusor instability ; Unstable bladder ; Unstable urethra
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Detrusor instability has for years been thought to be due to a primary bladder pathology in 90% of cases. The remaining 10% were attributed to neurologic disorders. The simultaneous measurement of urethral and bladder pressures in patients with detrusor instability revealed two different patterns. The first was characterized by uninhibited bladder contractions followed by urethral relaxation. The second consisted of detrusor contraction preceded by urethral relaxation. The presence of involuntary urethral pressure changes exceeding 15 cmH2O was defined as urethral instability. These observations have important therapeutic implications. Bladder instability secondary to an unstable urethra does not respond to anticholinergic therapy as well as primary detrusor instability. Better results are obtained by increasing the tone of the urethral sphincter with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Therefore, it is important to identify the chronological sequence of bladder and urethral pressure changes, in order to plan adequate therapy for patients with detrusor instability.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The visual computer 6 (1990), S. 16-27 
    ISSN: 1432-2315
    Keywords: Shading technique ; Congradient shading ; Voxel ; Cube architecture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A shading technique for voxel-based images, termedcongradient shading, is presented. As the surface information is not available in voxel representation, the surface normal must be recovered from the 3D discrete voxel map itself. The technique defines the normal as one of a finite set of neighborhood-estimated gradients and can thus employ precalculated look-up tables. Furthermore, a table-driven mechanism permits changing the light source parameters by merely redefining the look-up table. The technique uses only simple arithmetic operations and is thus suitable for hardware implementation. Since it has been implemented not as a post-processor, but as part of the projection pipeline of the cube architecture, congradient shading can be executed in real time. Two versions of the technique in real time. Two versions of the technique have been conceived and implemented:unidirectional shading, in which the gradient is estimated only from neighborhoods along the scan-lines;bidirectional shading, in which both horizontal and vertical components of the gradient are considered. In spite of the simplicity of the technique, the results are practically indistinguishable from images generated by conventional techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Alterations in routine and environment can affect clinical state in patients suffering from cognitive impairment. A method for rating life events for changes in routine and environment is described and found to be highly reliable even when used by inexperienced raters after brief training.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Kinetic and transport theory ; Classical, semiclassical, quantum theories of liquid structure ; Studies of specific liquid structures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto In questo lavoro si studiano le proprietà strutturali di elementi liquidi di gruppo V (ed un composto InSb) e si analizzano le differenze con le loro fasi cristalline a temperatura ambiente. Si fanno esperimenti di diffrazione dei neutroni usando neutroni a breve lunghezza d'onda (0.7 Å). Si mostrano i diversi comportamenti in fusione di un elemento leggero (As) e di un elemento pesante (Sb) in studio. Mentre As mantiene la sua coordinazione tre sopra fusione, Sb ha coordinazione 6 in fusione. Similmente InSb ha numero di coordinazione in aumento da 4 a circa 6 sopra fusione. Grandi entropie di fusione sono in relazione con importanti variazioni strutturali.
    Abstract: Резюме В этой работе мы исследуем структурные свойства жидких элементов группы V (и соединения InSb). Мы анализируем различия их кристаллических фаз при комнатной температуре. Проводятся эксперименты по дифракции нейтронов, исполъзуя нейтроны с короткой длиной волны (0.7 Å). Мы обнаруживаем различные поведения при плавлении для легкого элемента (As) и для тяжелого элемента (Sb). Тогда как As сохраняет координационное число три при плавлении, Sb является шестикоординированным в расплаве. Аналогично, InSb имеет координационное число, которое увеличивается от 4 до 6 при плавлении. Большие энтропии расплавов связаны с существенными изменениями структуры.
    Notes: Summary In this paper, we study the structural properties of liquid group-V elements (and a compound InSb) and we analyse the differences with their room temperature crystalline phases. Neutron diffraction experiments are performed using short-wavelength neutrons (0.7 Å). We show different melting behaviours of a light element (As) and a heavy element (Sb) under study. Whereas As keeps its coordination three upon melting, Sb is six-coordinated in the melt. Similarly, InSb has a coordination number increasing from 4 to about 6 upon melting. Large entropies of melting are related to important structural variations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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