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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Peritoneal cytotoxic T cells ; Microenvironment ; Metastasis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are usually obtained after immunization in vivo and restimulation of immune cells in vitro. We here describe the generation of syngeneic tumour-specific CTL within no more than 9 days by priming and restimulation in vivo. This is achieved only if the correct sites are used both for primary immunization (ear pinna) and for restimulation (peritoneal cavity). The kinetics of immune T cell induction and of the secondary response in vivo will be reported. While a secondary CTL response could be generated in the peritoneal cavity, this was not possible in the spleen, no matter which routes of antigen restimulation were used. Upon transfer of immune spleen cells into the peritoneal cavity but not into the spleen, a secondary response could be generated upon in situ restimulation, indicating the importance of the correct microenvironment for this type of response. The peritoneal effector cells were true T cells and recognized a tumour-associated antigen in association with the Kd major histocompatibility (MHC class I) antigen. Finally the activated tumour-specific peritoneal exudate cells were able to transfer protective immunity without exogenous interleukin-2 into normal syngeneic mice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the processing of silicon iron (Fe-3%) Si), so-called ‘fayalite layers’ are formed. By CEMS, they were found to consist of an outer Fe3+-oxide layer and an inner Fe2SiO4 (fayalite) layer. Sometimes an additional wüstite contribution was found. Thef-factor of fayalite was determined experimentally (f fayalite/f α-Fe=0.47±0.04) and, by use of it, the thicknesses of the layers on some silicon iron samples could be calculated from CEMS data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hyperfine interactions 57 (1990), S. 2261-2267 
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Iron in andalusite (Al2SiO5) with concentrations of 1.5 … 4.3 wt-% has been reported in the literature to occupy mainly Al1 sites as Fe3+, and only small portions occupy Al2 sites as Fe3+ and Fe2+. In no case a magnetic hyperfine splitting has been found at temperatures above 77 K. We have studied natural samples of andalusite containing 0.3 and 0.5 wt-% only. Mössbauer spectra recorded at 80 and 300 K show magnetically split spectra and, for the 0.5% sample, an additional doublet can be seen. The spectra are interpreted as being due to a slow paramagnetic relaxation resulting in Fe3+ and Fe2+ hyperfine multiplets. An increase in the Fe concentration reduces the paramagnetic relaxation time. It seems that the andalusite structure can contain a limited number of Fe2+ only, and a similar limitation does not exist for Fe3+ ions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Leukemia ; Immunotherapy ; Micrometastases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary DBA/2 (H-2d) mice bearing a transplanted highly metastatic lymphoma (ESb) in a state of widely disseminated disease could be successfully treated by a combination of surgery (removal of the local tumour), irradiation (5 Gy) and adoptive immunotherapy. The immunotherapy was achieved by transfer of anti-ESb-immune spleen cells from B10.D2 mice, which express the same major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules as DBA/2. In contrast, anti-ESb-immune cells from MHC-disparate C57BL/6 mice did not confer protective immunity. The B10.D2 anti-ESb-immune T cells contain two types of cytolytic specificity as detected by limiting-dilution analysis: (1) clones with specificity for the ESb-tumour-associated transplantation antigen (TATA) (at low frequency), and (b) clones with specificity for minor DBA/2 histocompatibility (H) antigens (at high frequency). Immune B10.D2 cells raised against different tumour lines or against TATA− ESb tumour variants did not confer the 100% protection seen with immune cells against ESb TATA+ cells. Finally we demonstrate that the allogeneic immune cells are more potent in terms of protective immunity than corresponding syngeneic immune cells. The data suggest that the strong graft-versus-leukemia effect with immune T cells from allogeneic MHC-identical but not from MHC-disparate mice was due to T cells with MHC-restricted specificity for an ESb-associated TATA. A graft-versus-host reactivity that developed much later and could not be prevented was most likely due to T cells sensitized against normal minor H antigens of the host. Our results are of potential relevance for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy protocols.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Silicon steel (Fe-3wt%Si), as used for transformers and generators, has been annealed in wet hydrogen at elevated temperatures. The composition, sequence, and thicknesses of the layers found by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling for a 10 minutes anneal in different atmospheres are reported. In the range from 500°C to 720°C we observed carbide formation, indicating that the decarburization is hindered. Above 800°C, the layers consist of fayalite or of fayalite and iron oxides, depending on the oxygen potentiala O . At 843°C, the onset of iron oxide formation was found ata O=0.33.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A new detector for CEMS has been built and optimized with respect to the statistical quality of spectra obtained. The optimization has been performed by measuring Mößbauer and pulse height spectra at in- and off-resonance. Single channel analyzer settings were calculated by a new optimization routine. A comparison of different detector designs has been performed using the statistical utility rate of spectra obtained from a stainless steel foil. A procedure for determining optimal operating parameters for ICEMS gas flow proportional counters is proposed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Applications of Depth-Selective Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (DCEMS) are limited by the long measuring times needed for collecting sufficient data statistics. To shorten the recording time, the background should be reduced and the detection efficiency for conversion electrons should be improved. For57Co/57Fe DCEMS, systematic studies were performed to investigate the origin, shape, and structure of the background components in DCEMS data distributions for various samples using channeltrons and low-noise scintillation counters as electron detectors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The near surface diffusion and reaction processes in iron-silicon steel (3.1 wt.%Si) during 10 min decarburization in water vapour/hydrogen have been studied. The decarburization temperature has been varied between 506 and 714°C for the fixed partial pressure ratio pH2O/pH2=0.017. An outer layer of SiO2 forms on the surface with its thickness increasing with temperature. From 600°C upwards, the decarburization process is hindered and a cementite layer is formed below the SiO2 layer. The formation of fayalite at the surface has been studied at a fixed decarburization temperature with pH2O/pH2 ranging from 0.017 to 0.49. The scale thickness reduces abruptly just before the ratio pH2O/pH2 necessary for the wüstite formation is reached. Obviously, a new layer is formed which reduces the oxygen diffusion that much that a transition from internal to external oxidation occurs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Systematic studies were performed to investigate the distorting effect of the electron energy dependence of the channeltron detector efficiency on the shape of data distributions in electron spectroscopy. In agreement with earlier results for electron energies up to 3 keV, it was found that a virtually energy-independent shape of the electron distribution might be achieved even in a very broad range of electgron energies (up to 15 keV) by appropriate selection of the operational high voltage of a channeltron. However, the efficieny of channeltrons was also found to depend on count rates, indicating one of the principal difficulties in comparing distribution recorded under different experimental conditions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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