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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Area postrema ; Lesion ; Supraoptic nucleus ; Oxytocin ; Osmotic stimulation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experiments were performed to examine whether or not the area postrema (AP) is involved in the osmotic control of neurohypophysial hormone release. In control rats and in rats bearing extensive lesions of AP, extracellular action potentials were recorded from neurosecretory cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and firing rates determined before and after the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1.5 M-NaCl solution. Lesion of the AP significantly (p≦0.05, Mann-Whitney's U-test) lowered firing rate of putative vasopressin (phasic) cells but not that of oxytocin (non-phasic) cells. In lesioned animals, i.p. injection of hypertonic saline, however, caused similar changes in plasma osmotic pressure, plasma oxytocin concentration and mean firing rates of both putative oxytocin and vasopressin cells to those in control rats. The results suggest that the osmotic control of SON neurosecretory cell activity in the rat can take place in the absence of the AP.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Copper deficiency ; Neutropenia ; Autoantibodies ; Anti-neutrophil antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ten patients with nutritional copper deficiency were studied in terms of neutrophil counts and anti-neutrophil antibodies (ANA). In four patients with severe or moderate copper deficiency, the production of ANA was positive and two patients with a severe deficiency had neutropenia. After copper supplementation, ANA titres became negative or were reduced in all patients and neutrophil counts reverted to normal in two patients. It thus appears that copper deficiency is linked to the production of ANA, a condition which partly responsible for neutropenia.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Ambenonium chloride ; Myasthenia gravis ; dietary effect ; serum concentration ; adverse effects ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Influence of food on the serum concentration and kinetics ambenonium chloride (AMBC) has been examined in thirteen patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Mean serum concentrations and Cmax during fasting were higher than those in the non-fasting state. The AUC (0–3 h) was also about four-times larger. The drug effects versus the serum concentration were observed to be anti-clockwise or clockwise. The effective range of the Cmax varied between patients. The unexpected increase in Cmax led to adverse muscarinic actions of AMBC, when the condition was changed from the non-fasting to the fasting state. It is recommended that the dose be changed during non-fasting treatment when adjusting the optimum regimen for patients myasthenia gravis. Patients must be advised to keep to the dosing and dietary schedule in order to avoid unexpected adverse actions to AMBC.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Temocapril ; Liver dysfunction ; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ; diacid ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six subjects with normal liver function (Group 1) and 7 patients with liver dysfunction (Group 2; mean ICGR15 value 30.5 (5.2) %; range 16 to 56) received a single oral dose of 1 mg temocapril, a prodrug-type ACE inhibitor, with preferentially excreted by the biliary route. The plasma temocapril concentrations in Group 2 at 30 min and 1 h postdose were significantly higher than in Group 1, but the difference had disappeared 2 h postdosing. Although the half life of temocapril diacid in Group 2 was significantly longer than in Group 1, there was no significant difference between the two groups in AUC, Cmax or tmax. In Group 2, urinary recovery of temocapril was significantly increased, suggesting a possible delay in the bioactivation of temocapril into the diacid, but recovery of the diacid itself was not abnormal. ACE inhibitory action in Group 2 remained unchanged. Temocapril is regarded as an ACE inhibitor the disposition and efficacy of which are little affected in patients with impaired liver function.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Specific antibody deficiency ; Autosomal dominant ; TSST-1 ; Toxic shock syndrome ; Staphylococcal infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report here our findings in two Japanese siblings who experienced recurrent bacterial and viral infections since early infancy. Recent symptoms included diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, rashes, headache, sore throat, joint pain, vomiting and vertigo, all similar to those seen in toxic shock syndrome, except for shock. These symptoms improved following gammaglobulin treatment.Staphylococcus aureus with coagulase type IV was continuously isolated from nasal smears producing toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Serum antibodies did not or only poorly responded to TSST-1, diphtheria toxoid, varicella virus and rubella virus, whereas total and subclass levels of serum immunoglobulin and in vitro DNA synthesis of lymphocytes stimulated by TSST-1,Staph. aureus, varicella vaccine and mitogens were normal. In the family, ten other members in three generations (five males: five females) including the mother had similar clinical symptoms. Thus, the disease may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words: Specific antibody deficiency – Autosomal dominant TSST-1 – Toxic shock syndrome – Staphylococcal infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We report here our findings in two Japanese siblings who experienced recurrent bacterial and viral infections since early infancy. Recent symptoms included diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, rashes, headache, sore throat, joint pain, vomiting and vertigo, all similar to those seen in toxic shock syndrome, except for shock. These symptoms improved following gammaglobulin treatment. Staphylococcus aureus with coagulase type IV was continuously isolated from nasal smears producing toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Serum antibodies did not or only poorly responded to TSST-1, diphtheria toxoid, varicella virus and rubella virus, whereas total and subclass levels of serum immunoglobulin and in vitro DNA synthesis of lymphocytes stimulated by TSST-1, Staph. aureus, varicella vaccine and mitogens were normal. In the family, ten other members in three generations (five males : five females) including the mother had similar clinical symptoms. Thus, the disease may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2250
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A finite-element model of the Navier-Stokes equations is used for numerical simulation of flow past two normal flat plates arranged side by side at Reynolds number 80 and 160. The results from this simulation indicate that when the gap between the plates is twice the width of a single plate, the individual wakes of the plates behave independently, with the antiphase vortex shedding being dominant. At smaller gap sizes, the in-phase vortex shedding, with strong wake interaction, is favored. The gap flow in those cases becomes biased, with one of the wakes engulfing the other. The direction of the biased flow was found to be switching at irregular intervals, with the time histories of the indicative flow parameters and their power spectra resembling those of a chaotic system.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Pearson's syndrome ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Diabetes mellitus ; Ragged-red fibre
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient with features of Pearson's syndrome who presented with transfusion-dependent severe macrocytic anaemia, neutropoenia, thrombocytopoenia, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the neonatal period is described. His bone marrow was characterized by marked vacuolization of myeloid precursors and ringed sideroblasts. Autopsy examination revealed fibrosis and steatosis of the liver, reduction in the size and number of the islets, fibrosis and acinar atrophy of the pancreas, vacuolation of renal tubules, glomerulosclerosis, and “ragged red” fibres of skeletal muscles. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the autopsied liver and skeletal muscle showed mtDNA heteroplasmy in both tissues, with one population of mtDNA deleted by 7374 bp. The deleted region was bridged by a single nucleotide, C, in normal mtDNA.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Chagas' disease ; Myocarditis ; Lymphocytes ; Immunohistochemistry ; Heart transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cellular subpopulations that infiltrate the heart in human chronic chagasic myocarditis were defined immunohistochemically in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens. T cells formed 96.3% of the inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly CD8+ (cytotoxic/ suppressor) T cells. The mean numbers of CD8+ and CD4+ (helper) T cells in the myocarditis were compared to those present in the myocardial rejection process. Mean numbers of CD8+ T cells were similar in both groups of EMB specimens while CD4+ T cell counts, CD4+/CD8+ ratios and CD4+ antigen expression were significantly lower in the chagasic group compared to the myocardial rejection group (P〈0.002). The persistent lower number and diminished expression of CD4+ T cells suggest an immunological imbalance in patients with chronic chagasic myocarditis. A possible participation ofTrypanosoma cruzi parasites in the development of such immunological abnormalities is also discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Glioma ; Tenascin ; Fibronectin ; Cell differentiation ; Tumor angiogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The immunohistochemical distribution of tenascin (TN), fibronectin (FN), and laminin (LN) was investigated in 56 human gliomas (8 astrocytomas, 15 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 33 glioblastomas) with regards to the histological degree of malignancy and the degree of tumor cell differentiation evaluated by the staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In 8 anaplastic astrocytomas and 28 glioblastomas, TN was predominantly immunolocalized in the basement membrane zone of the proliferating tumor vessels; sections of all astrocytomas were negative for TN staining. FN was localized in the basement membrane zone of the vessels in all astrocytomas, 12 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 22 glioblastomas. In 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and 19 glioblastomas, both TN and FN were expressed to various degrees in the tumor vessels. However, most of the TN-positive vessels did not express FN, and most of the FN-positive vessels were negative for TN staining. Furthermore, in 6 anaplastic astrocytomas and 12 glioblastomas, either TN of FN, but not both, were expressed in any area on serial sections. Most of the tumor cells around TN-positive, FN-negative tumor vessels did not express GFAP. On the other hand, GFAP was present in most tumor cells around TN-negative, FN-positive vessels. LN was detected in all vascular and pial-glial basement membrane zone of the tissues examined. These findings indicate that the degree of histological malignancy and the degree of cell dedifferentiation of human gliomas correlate well with the expression of TN, but are inversely correlated with the expression of FN. We postulate that the expression of TN, but not of FN, plays a role in the promotion of angiogenesis in malignant gliomas.
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