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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The variability of the hepatitis C virus genome was investigated in a group of German patients who developed chronic hepatitis C after parenteral administration of contaminated immunoglobulin to prevent Rh sensitization after pregnancy. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence alterations of the E1 and the first hypervariable region of the E2 gene of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome from sera of two randomly selected patients were studied by comparison of HCV sequences obtained from the original inoculum (anti Rh immunoglobulin) and from patient sera collected in 1979 and 1989. All isolates were classified as subtype 1b but showed nucleotide insertions of up to 12 nucleotides at the cleavage site of E1/E2. Microheterogeneity of HCV genomes was found in the immunoglobulin supporting the quasispecies model of HCV distribution. Remarkable nucleotide exchanges over the 10 year period in the E1 region (0.9−5.2×10−3 base substitutions per genome site per year) and especially in the first hypervariable region of the E2 gene (about 1.5×10−2) occurred. The HCV genome undergoes a selection of variants, though it is not known if this derives from mutation or selection of pre-existing rare variants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The properties of three different recombinant hepatitis B virus core proteins expressed inEscherichia coli were compared: an N-terminal fusion protein, a C-terminally truncated protein and a sequence-authentic protein. All three proteins assembled into capsid-like particles with typical HBc-antigenicity, sedimentation behavior and distinctive electron microscopical images. Apart from this, however, variant HBc proteins displayed properties different from sequence-authentic HBc protein p21.4. Unlike p21.4, the particles of the N-terminal fusion protein p22.2 were sensitive to proteolytic attack by trypsin at variable sites within its arginine-rich C-terminus but not in its extended N-terminus. We therefore conclude that the C-terminal region is located on the surface of the p22.2 particle. These particles also showed increased HBe-antigenicity, as did the C-terminally truncated core particles p17.6, and to an even greater extent p18* particles which were derived from p22.2 by tryptic digestion. This might be interpreted as evidence for an — albeit minor — structural change. All variant core particles were less stable and contained less RNA. Electron microscopic indication for DNA binding of C-terminal deleted p17.6 particles was obtained using an aqueous spreading technique.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2315
    Keywords: Computer tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Ray-casting algorithm ; Voxel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Multi-slice images obtained from computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging represent a 3D image volume. For its visualization we use a raycasting algorithm working on a gray-scale voxel data model. This model is extended by additional attributes such as membership to an organ or a second imaging modality (“generalized voxel model”). It is shown that the combination of different surface-rendering algorithms together with cutting and transparent display allow a realistic visualization of the human anatomy.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Esophageal cancer ; Endosonography ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The results of endosonography and computed tomography, using an optimized CT technique, have been compared in the preoperative detection of intrathoracic tumor spread of esophageal cancer. In 22/40 patients with esophageal tumors complete passage of the ultrasonic endoscope was possible. Endosonography was superior to CT in the assessment of early stage of esophageal tumor (T1-2). Out of 9 tumors confined to the esophageal wall, 8 were classified correctly by endosonography and only 5 by computed tomography. The results in advanced T3 and T4 tumors (13 patients) were comparable following endosonography and computed tomography. Endosonography is an important means of selecting patients with early-stage cancers in whom a curative resection is still a possibility.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the last three centuries, western culture has emphasized initiative as a way of life. This trend has resulted in extraordinary progress in many aspects of life, though at the same time created a frightfully specialized lifestyle. We have moved far from the ancient Greek principle “Meden agan,” “don't overdo anything.” Initiative, not intelligence or motivation, is what sets apart western culture. Initiative is a self-activating force that, while not initially goal-directed, drives western man to constant achievement and accumulation. It is therefore strange that initiative has not been seriously studied while intelligence and motivation, with both seem less important to western culture, have been exhaustively researched. The importance of initiative can be clearly seen by studying non-western cultures. In my years working in northern Canada and Zululand, South Africa, and from stories from my colleagues, I have seen many examples of traditional culture inhibiting initiative. Culture, ethnicity, religious and racial factors may each play a role in curtailing the development of initiative. The inhibiting role of some traditional cultures may be a key to the social stratification than many western cultures, including the U.S., now face. Perhaps we should be looking at initiative as a determining factor in the development and continuation of slums and the exclusion of whole sectors of the population from the “American Dream”. One thing is absolutely clear. Initiative is integral to the success of the individual in western culture. As such, it deserves to be studied. Initiative is not as easily quantifiable as intelligence or motivation, but that should not prevent us as social scientists from studying it. It is too important to be ignored.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 76.30F ; 76.30H ; 71.70J
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The possibilities to identify small diluted paramagnetic cluster defects in solids by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance are demonstrated in two examples: the Mn 4 0 cluster and a Cu-Au cluster in silicon crystals. A comprehensive picture of the clusters can be given containing the chemical nature of the constituents, the spatial arrangement, the charge states and the electronic structure.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are causative agents of pyogenic infections and are closely linked to various forms of periodontal diseases. Whereas many studies have shown a high incidence of plasmids in intestinal Bacteroides spp., there have been only a few reports of plasmid analyses in pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes. According to previous reports and confirmed in this study, plasmids can be present in Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Prevotella intermedia, Pr. melaninogenica, and B. levii but have not been detected in P. gingivalis or other black-pigmented species. There were no correlations between plasmids and phenotypes such as resistance to antibiotics or bacteriocinogenicity. The highest carriage rate was found in isolates from cases of chronic otitis media, but the relationship between this site of infection and a high incidence of plasmids could be incidental. The size of plasmids ranged from 1.5 to 29 MDa. Plasmids with molecular weight 〉 10 MDa were described for the first time in these organisms. Repeated plasmid analyses showed that the plasmid patterns were generally stable.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The antimicrobial activities of Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates were tested against other species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobes as well as against each other. Generally, Pr. intermedia possessed significantly higher antimicrobial activity than P. gingivalis. The strongest activity of P. gingivalis towards Gram-negative anaerobes was directed against Pr. intermedia. Cross-sensitivity between both species was observed with strains from different lesions. Antimicrobial activity towards strains of the same species was detected only with Pr. intermedia. No correlations were found between plasmid content and antimicrobial activity. It was concluded that the inhibitory potency of Pr. intermedia could be one reason for the high proportion of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes in the subgingival flora of periodontitis lesions.
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