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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley leaf stripe ; Erysiphe graminis f.sp hordei ; Heterodera avena ; Linkage map ; Ml(La)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The powdery mildew disease resistance gene Ml(La) was found to belong to a locus on barely chromosome 2. We suggest that this locus be designated MlLa. Linkage analysis was carried out on 72 chromosome-doubled, spring-type progeny lines from a cross between the winter var ‘Vogelsanger Gold’ and the spring var ‘Alf’. A map of chromosome 2 spanning 119cM and flanked by two peroxidase gene loci was constructed. In addition to the Laevigatum resistance locus the map includes nine RFLP markers, the two peroxidase gene loci and the six-row locus in barley.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Erythropoietin ; recombinant human erthropoietin ; pharmacokinetics ; subcutaneous ; absorption ; bioavailability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin (RhEPO) were investigated after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection in the thigh and in the abdominal wall. Eleven healthy subjects, age 24.4 years (median), were studied. Each subject received two s.c. injections of 100 U·kg-1 RhEPO dissolved in 1 ml water: one injection in the thigh and another in the abdomen. Serum erythropoietin was measured regularly by radioimmunoassay until 144 h after each injection. The mean residence time was significantly longer after injection in the thigh than in the abdomen (32.7 vs 26.2 h). The estimated half-life of absorption was significantly longer after injection in the thigh than after abdominal application (14.9 vs 12.3 h). The estimated half-life of elimination was not significantly different (4.4 vs 4.8 h). The relative difference in the area under the curve between injection in the abdomen and the thigh in the same subject ranged from -36% to +68% but there was no significant difference in bioavailability. The peak concentration was not significantly different and appeared at around 10 h (Cmax thigh, 175 U·l-1 vs Cmax abdomen, 216 U·l-1). A twin-peak configuration of the concentration vs time curve with a significant second peak at 24 h was found after injection in the thigh but not after abdominal injection. In conclusion, the mean residence time was longer after administration in the thigh, probably due to delayed absorption, but bioavailability was not significantly different. Following injection in the thigh the concentration curve had two peaks. The differences may be due to regional variations in lymph flow and to physical activity. The overall differences in pharmacokinetics appeared to be too small to recommend a general preference of the injection site.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Ischemia ; GABA ; Autoradiography ; Microdialysis ; In vitro electrophysiology ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have investigated the GABAergic system in rat hippocampus at 1 hour and up to 21 days following 20 min of global cerebral ischemia. Distribution of 3H-GABA (in excess of unlabeled baclofen) and 3H-Ro-15-1788 (benzodiazepine antagonist) binding sites in hippocampus was studied utilizing quantitative autoradiography. The 3H-GABA binding was unchanged (p〉 0.01) after ischemia, whereas the 3H-Ro-15-1788 binding decreased significantly (p〈 0.01) in all hippocampal subfields 1–21 days after ischemia. Using microdialysis in CA1, we found that K+-stimulated GABA release at 1 hour and 1 day after ischemia was unchanged (p〉 0.01) in comparison to preischemic controls. Electrophysiological recordings were made from CA1 of hippocampal slices prepared from rats sacrificed 1 hour, 1 day and 2 days after ischemia. Field potentials evoked by stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals showed no differences (p 〉 0.01) from those taken from controls. Postischemic intracellular recordings from the CA1 pyramidal cells showed that fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were readily evoked on orthodromic stimulation. Together with our previous morphological results, demonstrating survival of hippocampal interneurons following ischemia, we conclude that hippocampal GABAergic interneurons preserve their inhibitory potential in the period preceding delayed CA1 pyramidal cell death. This conclusion taken together with the observation that postischemic 3H-Ro-15-1788 binding in hippocampus declined, suggest that benzodiazepines (by increasing the receptor affinity), GABA analogs, and GABA uptake inhibitors may be usefull in the treatment of ischemic CA1 pyramidal cell death in the rat.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Aster ; Bridge ; Fungus ; Microtubule ; Mitosis ; Spindle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Previous studies have shown that in the fungusNectria haematococca (the sexual stage ofFusarium solani f. sp.pisi), the central spindle regulates the rate at which the asters pull apart the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) during anaphase B. These controlled movements are likely to be dependent upon lateral interactions between the microtubules (MTs) of both the central spindle and the asters. Since molecular bridges between MTs are known to play structural and motive roles in MT-based activities, such bridges are likely to be present in both of these areas of the mitotic apparatus. Therefore, in this study we have examined the potential for bridging between MTs, and the arrangement of intermicrotubule bridges in the mitotic apparatus ofN. haematococca. Using three-dimensional reconstruction analysis of serial thin sections, we found that 70% of the MTs in anaphase A central spindles, 902–100% in anaphase B spindles, and an average of 46% of astral MTs were sufficiently close to each other (i.e., within 70 nm center-to-center) for bridging to occur. Structures resembling intermicrotubule bridges were seen in electron micrographs between parallel MTs of both the central spindle and the asters. Microdensitometer-computer correlation analysis of the putative bridges identified them as having a nonrandom arrangement along the MT that was compatible with a 14-dimer helical superlattice. Intermicrotubule bridges in the anaphase B central spindle could: (i) enhance its strength by bundling the MTs, (ii) stabilize a portion of the MTs against depolymerization, thereby allowing the spindle to persist to an advanced stage of elongation, and (iii) generate forces within the spindle that counter the pull of the asters, thus regulating the rate of spindle elongation. In the aster, intermicrotubule bridges could increase the amount of astral pulling force applied to the SPB by (i) generating intertubule motive forces and/or (ii) enlarging the functional domain of the aster through structural linkages between polar MTs and free MTs.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 46 (1990), S. 779-781 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: epidermal growth factor ; sclerotherapy ; esophageal ulcers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human epidermal growth factor (EGF), a small polypeptide (6 kDa) with mitogenic properties, has been implicated in the protection of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity. The efficacy of EGF in the prevention and healing of sclerotherapy-induced esophageal lesions was investigated in 24 minipigs with surgically induced portal hypertension. In addition, the effect of EGF on intragastric acidity and pharmacokinetics was investigated as possible means to explain its protective mechanism of action. The animals underwent three weekly sessions of sclerotherapy with polidocanol 2% and were concomitantly and for an additional three weeks treated with either placebo or EGF administered paravenously in the esophagus and/or subcutaneously. The subcutaneous treatment with EGF significantly (P〈0.05) reduced esophageal stricture and scar formations associated with sclerotherapy. Gastric pH values were significantly (P〈0.01) elevated only in animals receiving subcutaneous injections of EGF. Furthermore, the subcutaneous administration of EGF was associated with unexpected prolonged plasma concentration of the peptide. These results suggest a possible clinical value of EGF as an adjunctive treatment with the sclerotherapy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2800
    Keywords: sexual dysfunction ; epilepsy ; chronic illness ; biopsychosocial model ; sex hormones
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Sexual dysfunction is a well-known complication of chronic somatic illness. Eighty-six consecutive epileptic outpatients, 38 men and 48 women, without accompanying disorders, were studied. The frequency and symptoms of sexual dysfunction were compared with results from previous studies using identical sexological methodology. The previous studies were of diabetic patients and healthy controls. Eight percent of the epileptic men reported a sexual dysfunction compared to 44% of the diabetics and 13% of the controls. Epileptic women, diabetic women, and controls showed no significant differences in sexual dysfunction (29%, 28%, and 25%, respectively). In both sexes, the sexual function measured by frequencies of coitus and masturbation was normal. Most patients had good control of epileptic attacks on a treatment of monotherapy. Hormonal status was generally within normal limits in both men and women; only a few minor differences were found and they showed no correlation with sexual dysfunction. Psychologically and socially the patients did not differ appreciably from normals, and they exhibited a high degree of disease acceptance. This study, using a biopsychosocial approach in understanding sexual dysfunctions, is in contrast with previous, mainly uncontrolled, studies of epileptic patients that reported high frequencies of “hyposexuality” in males. We conclude that epilepsy does not necessarily increase the risk of sexual dysfunction in male or female.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: amiodarone ; hypothyroidism ; 3H-ouabain-binding ; Na,K-pump ; skeletal muscle ; myopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Na,K-ATPase, or the Na,K-pump, is essential for the excitability and contractility of muscle tissue. Hypothyroidism in associated with a marked decrease in the Na,K-pump concentration in skeletal muscle and myocardium. In 7 patients on long-term amiodarone treatment there was a 36% reduction in the concentration of 3H-ouabain binding sites in skeletal muscle biopsies compared to 7 healthy subjects. This decrease during long-term amiodarone treatment may represent an equivalent reduction in the concentration of the functional Na,K-pump and it may be important in the adverse effect of amiodarone on muscle.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Propranolol ; Atenolol ; Xamoterol ; exercise ; electrolytes ; beta-adrenoceptor blockade ; serum potassium ; serum magnesium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of clinical doses of drugs that affect β-adrenoceptors has been examined on heart rate, blood pressure, duration of exercise, and on electrolyte concentrations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) during recovery from exercise in healthy volunteers. The drugs used were a β1-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, a nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, and a cardioselective, partial β1-adrenoceptor agonist with 43% ISA activity, xamoterol. The duration of exercise was smaller on propranolol. Maximum exercise heart rate and blood pressure were reduced significantly by propranolol and atenolol. Xamoterol reduced maximum exercise heart rate and had no effect on blood pressure. The degree of breathlessness and fatigue revealed no differences between treatments. Recent evidence has suggested an association between hyperkalaemia and hypomagnesaemia with an increase in the occurrence of arrythmias following acute myocardial infarction. Exercise-induced hyperkalaemia has been suggested as a factor in sudden death. The results confirmed a rise in serum potassium during exercise and attenuation of the fall during recovery under β-adrenoceptor blockade. Xamoterol was no different from placebo in these respects. Exercise also produced a rise in magnesium levels and during recovery the level fell below baseline. Both these effects were attenuated by propranolol. Calcium levels were not affected by any of the treatments.
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