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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Nicotine ; bioavailability ; nasal spray
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absolute bioavailability of nicotine administered nasally, as drops to the nasal conchae and nasal septum, and as a nasal spray, has been studied in eight healthy volunteers. Single nasal doses of 1 mg nicotine were given and plasma concentrations of nicotine were followed for 6 h. Compared to an intravenous infusion of nicotine, the bioavailability of the nasal administrations was 60 to 75%. The rate of absorption was fast, the maximum concentration being reached after about 10 min. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the different nasal treatments.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé On a examiné, 5,7 ans en moyenne (de 3 à 13) après le traumatisme, 39 patients de 34 ans d'âge moyen, traités orthopédiquement pour rupture unilatéral du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA). Le membre inférieur opposé a servi de contrôle. Le score d'activité de Tegner était significativement inférieur au niveau d'activité souhaité. Aucun patient n'était asymptomatique et seulement deux sur 39 pouvaient pratiquer des sports nécessitant des mouvements de pivotement. L'instabilité et la douleur étaient les symptômes les plus habituels. Le moment isokinétique de flexion et d'extension, le saut à cloche-pied, ainsi que la laxité du genou testée instrumentalement, étaient significativement altérés du côté blessé, lors de l'examen. La dégradation fonctionnelle n'était pas correlée avec les tests cliniques de laxité du genou. Peu de patients sont subjectivement satisfaits de la fonction de leur genou après rupture du LCA, malgré un programme particulier de réhabilitation.
    Notes: Summary Thirty-nine patients with ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were treated conservatively and were subsequently examined at an average of 5.7 years after injury, the uninjured leg acting as a control. The Tegner activity score was significantly lower than the desired activity level. No patients were free of symptoms and only two could take part in sport which involved pivoting. The isokinetic knee extensor and flexor torques, as well as the one-leg-hop and instrumented knee joint laxity tests, were significantly impaired at follow-up. Functional impairment was not related to tests of knee joint laxity. Few patients were pleased with their subjective knee function after an ACL rupture despite thorough initial rehabilitation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; aetiology ; early growth ; breast feeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉 2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, aetiology, early growth, breast feeding.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p 〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 91–94]
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This investigation was performed to assess the bone-to-implant surface contact at fixtures of titanium that either had a standard machine prepared or a TiO2-blasted surface. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiment. Extractions of the premolars were performed in the maxilla. After 4 months of healing, 5 standard machine-prepared fixtures and 5 prepared according to the TioBlast technique were inserted. Two months later another 5 “standard” and 5 TiO Blast-prepared implants were inserted. Four months after the first fixture installation, the animals were killed and ground sections prepared from each implant site. Of the 20 implants installed, 19 were successfully incorporated. The mean bone-to-implant surface for “standard” fixtures was about 40% both at the 2 and 4 months observation interval. The corresponding figures for the TiO Blast-prepared fixtures were similar during the first 2 months of observation, while subsequently the TioBlast-prepared fixture surface seemed to stimulate to a more close bone-to-implant contact (65%) than the “standard” one.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Sixty fasciotomies of the deep posterior compartment were performed on 30 patients with longstanding bilateral medial tibial syndrome (mean duration 25 months). The initial symptoms occurred during sports activities in all cases. Only 2 of the athletes were able to continue sports at an ordinary activity level. The diagnosis was based on a typical history of longstanding exertional pain and clinical findings of tenderness at the postero-medial border of the tibia. Radiographs showed no abnormalities. Scintigrams were performed in 12 patients in whom stress fractures could not be excluded by radiographs and clinical examination. Conservative treatment failed to relieve the symptoms. At follow-up 34 months (range 6–85) after surgery, 95% of the men and 73% of the women were free of symptoms or improved compared with prior to surgery. Whereas 68% of the men were totally free of symptoms, the corresponding figure for the women was 36%. Ninety-five percent of the men and 82% of the women returned to sport after surgery. Seventy-four percent of the men and 54% of the women returned to an activity level similar to that prior to injury. We conclude that fasciotomy of the deep posterior compartment gives a good long-term result in patients with medial tibial syndrome when conservative treatment fails. There was no significant difference between the sexes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of these animal experiments was to characterize and evaluate the healing-in of root analogue titanium implants fitting with high precision to the alveolar wall. Four beagle dogs were used in the study. The roots of the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars in both quadrants of 3 dogs and in 1 quadrant of 1 dog (dog 4) were extracted after hemisection. Each root was machine-copied to 1 titanium analogue. In dog 4, however, 2 titanium analogues were fabricated from each of the 4 extracted roots. This enabled insertion of analogues also into the contralateral sockets obtained by extraction of the corresponding roots immediately before implant installation, which was undertaken 2 weeks after the first extractions. Thus, in all, 32 analogues were implanted in their respective (or contralateral) sockets following ridge incision and elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps. The analogues were carefully covered by the repositioned flaps. In dog 4, 2 analogues from the immediate sockets and 2 from the 2-week sockets were surgically exposed and supplied with titanium crowns after a healing period of 2 months. The healing after implantation was evaluated by clinical, radiographic and histological measures after 2, 12 or 36 months. Two analogues (6%) were lost due to early (during the 1st week) exposure to the oral cavity. Another 2 analogues (6%) were, although not exposed, encapsulated by soft tissue and were easily removed with a surgical forceps. Twenty-eight analogues (88%) were healed-in by contact between bone and implant (osseointegration). The mean percentages of bone tissue in contact with the implant of such analogues were 30.5% after 2 months, 64.8% after 12 months and 68.1% after 36 months, as evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. The 4 analogues supplied with titanium crowns carried those with maintained bone anchorage throughout an experimental period of 36 months. The character of the interface between the analogue and the surrounding bone tissue was the same regardless of whether the implantation was performed immediately 1 or 2 weeks after extraction of the roots.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The natural course of 46 stress fractures of the tibia were studied in relation to sports activity, diagnosis and treatment in 28 recreational athletes and 13 elite athletes. Two major types of stress fractures were observed. Thirty athletes sustained a posteriomedial fracture of the tibia and claimed a sudden onset of exertional pain. The initial symptoms occurred during running or orienteering (n= 19), soccer (n= 4), workout or dancing (n= 3), triathlon, basketball, badminton and tennis (one each) and were similarity distributed between left and right leg. Scintigraphs showed Zwas type I/II lesions, while X-rays were negative in most cases. The patients were treated only with restriction in sports activities. The fractures healed within 8–24 weeks with excellent or good results. The remaining 11 athletes had anterior margin stress fractures with a slow onset of exertional pain and a long delay in diagnosis. These injuries occurred in 4 long-distance runners, 2 handball players, 2 dancers, 1 volleyball player, 1 triathloner and 1 decathloner. They were located in the nondominant left leg (in three cases bilateral). The fractures showed Zwas I or II lesions on scintigrams, but differed from the posteriomedial injuries on the typical V-shape appearence on X-ray. The patients had conservative treatment, including immobility and restriction in sports activities. Four of the patients were operated when not symptom-free after 12–34 months. All elite athletes (n= 5) in this group had to interrupt then-elite carreer. At follow up 24–60 months after the initial symptoms, only 1 patient was symptom-free. Thus, posteriomedial tibial stress fractures show a sudden onset and benign natural course, while anterior stress fractures should be treated with caution. The use of bone scintigraphy should be emphasized early when an athlete presents with exertional lower leg pain.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: A 2-week training period 2000 meters above sea level performed by 6 male elite Swedish runners influenced neither basal anabolic (total and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone (NST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) nor catabolic (cortisol) hormones when comparing serum levels prior to and after the training camp. The anabolic vs catabolic hormone balance, expressed as the NST: cortisol ratio, also remained unchanged as well as SHBG and body mass. Thus, training at 2000 meters above sea level, often practised by elite runners to improve performance in competition at sea level, does not result in a catabolic situation after return to sea level, as measured by peripheral hormones. However, the adaptation to high altitude was associated with a slight (NS) decrease in testosterone as well as in anabolic vs catabolic balance as measured the third day at high altitude. Simultaneously, a decrease in subjective performance was claimed by the runners, but could not be shown by objective measurements. From day 3 to day 9 at high altitude, all runners claimed a subjective recuperation of performance. Total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone increased significantly from day 3 at high altitude to the first post-camp sea-level test. The results reflect the necessity of adaptation when travelling to races at different altitudes. The Swedish runners had significantly higher cortisol, total testosterone and NST levels compared with basal values of a group of 17 elite Kenyan runners living and training at high altitude. Since the NST cortisol and IGF-1 values were not lower, a catabolic state or malnutrition was not likely to be present. The results might reflect an adaptation to altitude or ethnic variations.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The effect of short-term altitude training on sea-level physiological characteristics in elite runners was investigated. Seven middle-distance runners (6 men, 1 woman) belonging to the Swedish national team (mean age 23 years) spent 2 weeks of training at 2000 m above sea level in Kenya. Treadmill tests were performed before and 6 and 12 d after the altitude sojourn. Six other runners (4 men, 2 women) had a corresponding training sojourn at sea level in Portugal (control group). Ro of the runners (1 man, 1 woman) in the Kenya group were omitted from the study because of gastroenteritis. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max; pretravel: Kenya group 212 and control group 188 ml · kg−0.75 - min−1), maximal treadmill time and oxygen cost of running were unchanged in both groups. The maximal oxygen deficit increased in all subjects after the Kenya sojourn (mean 19±6%). Heart rates during running at specified submaximal running velocities were lower post-altitude (Kenya group), but tended to be higher after sea-level training (control group). Maximal heart rate was unchanged in both groups. Perceived exertion (Borg) during submaximal running was lower post-altitude. Submaximal and maximal blood lactate and plasma catecholamine concentrations were not altered in any of the groups. Post-exhaustive plasma ammonia levels were decreased 12 d after altitude descent in the Kenya group. The results suggest an unchanged aerobic capacity in elite middle-distance runners after short-term training at moderate altitude. However, a change in the circulatory regulation during submaximal exercise was observed. Furthermore, anaerobic capacity improved but this bore no clear relation to lactate or ammonia metabolism.
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