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  • 1
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Spider mites ; Tetranchus urticae ; damage ; feeding ; temperature ; photoperiod
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wir untersuchten den Einfluss von Temperatur und Licht auf die Saugtätigkeit von Tetranychus urticae auf Bohnenpflanzen und fanden eine nicht-lineare Beziehung zwischen Temperatur und Saugaktivität. Die Saugintensität stieg bei Temperaturen über 10 °C an bis zum Saugmaximum bei 35 °C und sank dann relativ rasch ab. Permanentes Licht- oder Dunkelregime übte keinen Einfluss auf die Saugleistung aus. Aufgrund der beobachteten Zusammenhänge zwischen Temperatur, Saugintensität und Intensität der Ausbildung der Schadsymptome entwickelten wir ein verbessertes Mass (‘mite-load’) für die Erfassung des Spinnmilbenstresses auf die Wirtspflanze. Die präsentierten Daten zeigen, dass mit der ‘mite-load’ Funktion die Saugschäden von T. urticae präziser erfasst werden können als mit den bisher gebräuchlichen Milbendichten pro Blatt oder Milbentagen.
    Notes: Abstract The influence of temperature and light regime on the feeding intensity of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) was studied on bean plants. A nonlinear relationship was found between temperature and feeding activity of T. urticae. The feeding intensity increased from 10 °C to 35 °C. At 10 °C there was practically no feeding, whereas at 35 °C maximum feeding occurred. above 35 °C the activity of the mites decreased. No difference could be found in the feeding intensity of mites kept at permanent darkness or permanent light. Based on the observed relationship between temperature and feeding activity and intensity of damage symptoms, respectively, we propose the use of a mite-load function to define the mite stress imposed on the plant.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 365 (1993), S. 244-246 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Soil emissions are the largest known source of atmospheric N2O (refs 2, 3). The soils of tropical forests alone may emit 3-6Tg N2O-N (1 Tg=1012g) of the total annual production of 14Tg N2O-N (refs 4, 5). Emissions of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil of tropical moist forests are of similar magnitude ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The biosphere is divided between heterotrophic and auto-trophic ways of life, raising the question of whether life began with one or the other. It is widely thought that life began hetero-trophically in a prebiotic broth of nucleotides (the RNA world9'10) and/or amino acids (for review see ref. ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-5029
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Phenylketonuria ; Dietary management ; 13C-leucine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract For patients with phenylketonuria the daily ingested phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture is the most important source of nitrogen. It is recommended to ingest one third of the total amount combined with main meals. Some patients, especially the older ones, do not follow this recommendation; they ingest the entire daily amount of amino acid mixture in one portion. This intake mode leads to an increased oxidative utilization of the amino acids. To set up an example for this metabolic phenomenon, a13C-leucine breath test was performed in one female phenylketonuric patient. She ingested a third of her daily amount of the amino acid mixture combined with an oral tracer of 3 mg13C-leucine/kg body weight at breakfast. The breath test was carried out by a standardized time schedule over 5 h. Three days later the breath test was repeated when she ingested the total amount of amino acid mixture in only one portion at breakfast. Total daily caloric intake and food composition were not changed. On both days a 24 h urine was collected to determine total nitrogen loss. The13C-content of expired air was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the total nitrogen content was determined using a combustion unit. The13C-elimination rate as a percentage of the applied13C-tracer was 9.5% on the first test day as compared to 19.6% on the 2nd day. The corresponding total nitrogen excretion was increased (4.3–6.9 g/24 h). This single case study showed the expected results and confirmed the hypothesis that the ingestion of high amounts of amino acid mixtures is accompanied by a significantly increased oxidative utilization.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words     Phenylketonuria ; Dietary management ; 13C-leucine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      For patients with phenylketonuria the daily ingested phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture is the most important source of nitrogen. It is recommended to ingest one third of the total amount combined with main meals. Some patients, especially the older ones, do not follow this recommendation; they ingest the entire daily amount of amino acid mixture in one portion. This intake mode leads to an increased oxidative utilization of the amino acids. To set up an example for this metabolic phenomenon, a 13C-leucine breath test was performed in one female phenylketonuric patient. She ingested a third of her daily amount of the amino acid mixture combined with an oral tracer of 3 mg 13C-leucine/kg body weight at breakfast. The breath test was carried out by a standardized time schedule over 5 h. Three days later the breath test was repeated when she ingested the total amount of amino acid mixture in only one portion at breakfast. Total daily caloric intake and food composition were not changed. On both days a 24 h urine was collected to determine total nitrogen loss. The 13C-content of expired air was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the total nitrogen content was determined using a combustion unit. The 13C-elimination rate as a percentage of the applied 13C-tracer was 9.5% on the first test day as compared to 19.6% on the 2nd day. The corresponding total nitrogen excretion was increased (4.3–6.9 g/24 h). This single case study showed the expected results and confirmed the hypothesis that the ingestion of high amounts of amino acid mixtures is accompanied by a significantly increased oxidative utilization.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spinal sonography has been helpful in the study of congenital anomalies involving the spine in fetuses and infants. We have found this technique also to be useful in the detection of intraspinal extension of paraspinal masses.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Lipoma ; Choroidal fissure ; Corpus callosum ; Neonate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Choroid plexus lipomas (CPL) are known to be associated with pericallosal lipomas (lipomas of the corpus callosum — LCC). Twenty-six case have previously been reported. Approximately half of these lipomas are connected via the choroidal fissure (LCC-CPL); this connection is almost always bilateral. We present an unusual unilaterally connected LCC-CPL in a neonate.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Carotid artery, dissection ; Carotid artery, diseases ; Carotid artery, surgery ; Carotid artery, magnetic resonance imaging ; Carotid endarterectomy, complications
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient who had recently undergone carotid endarterectomy was found to have internal carotid artery dissection on an MRI examination. This is a supposedly rare complication of this frequently performed operation. Since most patients with dissection of the ICA (from whatever cause) are symptomatic when the diagnosis is made, its incidental detection in an asymptomatic patient suggests that this complication may be commoner than generally recognised. We review the ways in which carotid dissection may occur during endarterectomy and the differential diagnosis of the MRI appearances.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Using fluorescently-labeled bacteria and detection by flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate inducible mixotrophy in a marine photosynthetic flagellate, Ochromonas sp. (class Chrysophyceae). Phagotrophic uptake of bacteria increases under conditions of low or limiting light and nutrients, but deceases in periods of prolonged darkness; sustained phagotrophy may require light. In addition, this alga appears to discriminate between and preferentially ingest different types of bacteria. Although this clone is primarily photosynthetic, phagotrophy contributes to its nutrition, especially when light or nutrients limit photosynthesis.
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