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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Coral reefs 13 (1994), S. 75-80 
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Coral surfaces are often colonized by bacteria and other microbes that may be pathogenic as well as surface-fouling. To test the hypothesis that corals possess antimicrobial properties, both polar and non-polar extracts from eight species of gorgonian corals were assayed against five species of bacteria. Antimicrobial activity was most apparent in the non-polar fractions, which inhibited bacterial growth in all but one of the 40 interactions assayed (8 coralsx5 bacteria). Polar extracts were effective in less than 40% (14/40) of the interactions assayed. The levels of antimicrobial activity varied significantly among the gorgonian corals and was also dependent on the species of bacteria. Generally, marine bacteria were less sensitive to the extracts than were non-marine species. Differences in selerite content among the gorgonians did not influence the levels of extract antimicrobial activity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es wird über eine Untersuchung der Wirkung konvexer Krümmung quer zur inkompressiblen turbulenten Grenzschichtströmun g längs eines kreisrunden Zylinders berichtet, die auf dem algebraischen Turbulenzmodell von Hornsby, Mistry und Barrow [1] basiert. Die Abweichungen der Strömungseigenschaften und Wärmeübergangsverhältnisse zu den entsprechenden Effekten an der ebenen Wand werden diskutiert. Für Reibungswiderstand und Wärmefluß liefert die Analyse Ergebnisse, die gut mit experimentellen Befunden übereinstimmen. Es zeigt sich ferner, daß unter den gegebenen Bedingungen der Reibungsbeiwert und die Stanton-Zahl mit abnehmendem Zylinderradius anwachsen und immer höhere Werte annehmen, als die vergleichbaren bei der ebenen Wand.
    Notes: Abstract An analysis based on a model of modified mixing length by Hornby, Mistry und Barrow [1] was made on the effect of transverse convex curvature in turbulent boundary layer for incompressible axial flows along circular cylinders. The deviation of various turbulent flow and heat transfer properties from those of flat plates is presented. The agreement between the analyses and the experimental results for skin friction and heat transfer rate is good. The study demonstrated that, for a given condition, both the friction coefficient and Stanton number increase with decreasing value of the cyclinder radius and that their values are always greater than those for the flow over a flat plate.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International orthopaedics 15 (1991), S. 199-203 
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Nous avons revu 25 cas de greffes ostéocutanées de péroné vascularisé qui ont été réalisées pour des pertes de substance tibiales étendues, associées à des lésions des parties molles, de 1982 à 1988. Sur les 25 cas, un seul concernait une ostéomyélite chronique compliquée d'hyperplasie épithéliale pseudo-carcinomateuse, les 24 autres étaient des fractures ouvertes comminutives avec perte de substance étendue d'os et de tissus mous. La surface moyenne de la greffe cutanée était de 12.3 cm × 5.8 cm et la longueur du péroné vascularisé était en moyenne de 16.5 cm. Trois ou quatre mois après l'opération la fusion de l'os —effé pouvait être mise radiologiquement en évidence. Les complications ont été soit des fractures du péroné greffé, soit des nécroses partielles et marginales du lambeau greffé, soit une infection non contrôlée des extrémités du greffon osseux. Dans l'ensemble les résultats de la transplantation ostéo-cutanée d'un péroné vascularisé sont satisfaisants.
    Notes: Summary We have reviewed 25 cases of vascularised osteocutaneous fibular transfers carried out between 1982 and 1988. The patients all had chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia, with extensive bone loss and associated soft tissue defects, following severely comminuted fractures. Union of the grafted bone could be seen in radiographs taken 3 to 4 months after operation. The results were generally satisfactory, but there were some complications.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Deux cent onze patients atteints de hernie discale lombaire, confirmée par imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) et représentant 242 niveaux, ont été répartis en cinq groupes. Le diagnostic IRM a été comparé aux constatations opératoires afin d'évaluer de façon prospective la précision diagnostique de la classification IRM. Il n'y a pas eu d'exploration discale négative. Pour la distinction entre protrusion et autres types de hernie discale, la sensibilité, la spécificité et l'exactitude de l'IRM ont été respectivement de 92%, 91% et 92%. Pour la séquestration discale, la sensibilité a été de 92%, la spécificité de 99% et l'exactitude de 97%. En ce qui concerne l'extrusion sous-ligamentaire, on a noté une sensibilité de 71%, une spécifité de 82% et une exactitude de 79%, tandis que pour les extrusions trans-ligamentaires la sensibilité a été de 52%, la spécifité de 92% et l'exactitude de 79%. L'exactitude moyenne pour la prévision du type de hernie discale a donc été de 85%. L'IRM de haute résolution est donc très efficace pour la détection des lésions discales et leur classification.
    Notes: Summary Two hundred and eleven patients with lumbar disc herniation at 242 levels were divided into 5 groups by their appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings at operation were compared to assess the accuracy of the MRI classification. There were no negative explorations. There was 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 92% accuracy for MRI in distinguishing protruded discs from other forms of lumbar disc herniation. For sequestrated discs there was 92% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% accuracy. In the extruded subligamentous type there was 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity and 79% accuracy, and 52% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 81% accuracy in the extruded transligamentous type. The overall accuracy of MRI predicting the types of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc was 85%. High resolution MRI is sensitive in detecting disc disease and specific in characterizing various subgroups of disc herniation, especially those which are sequestrated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Afin d'évaluer la valeur de la tomographie d'émission à simple photon, en haute résolution et obtenue à l'aide d'une caméra spéciale à trois têtes (3H-SPECT), dans le diagnostic de nécrose ischémique de la tête fémorale, une scintigraphie au TC-99m, une 3H-SPECT et une IRM ont été effectuées sur des patients suspectés de nécrose ischémique. La 3H-SPECT a été effectuée durant 20 minutes, 5 heures après injection de 20mCi de Tc-99m, à l'aide d'une gamma-caméra à 3 détecteurs rotatifs, équipée de collimateurs à ultra-haute résolution. En montrant un défect photonique, la scintigraphie et la 3H-SPECT ont permis le diagnostic de nécrose. Le diagnostic définitif de nécrose ischémique a pu être établi pour 32 patients et 52 hanches après l'IRM et/ou les constatations anatomo-pathologiques. Onze patients étaient atteints d'un seul côté et 21 étaient porteurs d'une nécrose bilatérale. Sur 32 patients et 52 hanches, la scintigraphie, la 3H-SPECT et l'IRM ont obtenu respectivement 37, 46 et 52 réactions positives. La sensibilité de la 3H-SPECT s'est donc révélée supérieure à celle de la scintigraphie (88.5% contre 71.5%) et supérieure également à celle, déjà rapportée, de la SPECT à tête unique. Dans la nécrose ischémique la 3H-SPECT donne une image plus claire et définit la zone atteinte de façon plus précise. Pour estimer le rôle de la 3H-SPECT dans le diagnostic de la nécrose ischémique il est nécessaire de poursuivre les recherches sur d'autres maladies et les études comparatives avec d'autres procédés radiologiques.
    Notes: Summary Bone scans, triple head single photon emission computed tomography (3H-SPECT) and MRI scans were compared for their ability to detect avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). 3H-SPECT was undertaken 5 hours after injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m MDP for 20 minutes using a 3 detector rotating gamma camera (TRIAD, Trionix) equipped with ultra-high resolution collimators. The bone scan and 3H-SPECT were diagnosed as positive for AVN when a photopenic defect in the femoral head could be identified. The final diagnosis of AVN was established in 32 patients in 52 hips by MRI and/or histological findings. Unilateral disease was present in 11 patients, while 21 had bilateral disease. Of 32 patients and 52 hips, the bone scan, 3H-SPECT and MRI detected 37, 46 and 52 positive hips respectively. The sensitivity of 3H-SPECT (88.5%) was higher than that of the bone scans (71.5%), and was also higher than that previously reported using a single head SPECT. In AVN, the 3H-SPECT image was much clearer, and permitted more accurate localization of lesions than was possible by a bone scan. Studies including patients with diseases other than AVN and correlation with other methods of imaging is needed to define the role of 3H-SPECT in the diagnosis of AVN more precisely.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis ; Batten disease ; Lipopigment ; Storage disease ; Amyloid precursor protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To verify our hypothesis of defective protease inhibitor domains that are encoded by abnormal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in brains of patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL), immunohistochemical and cytochemical studies were performed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against various domains of APP. For the studies, 22 autopsy brains were used: 12 with different forms of NCL, and 10 control brains. The staining procedure for the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) technique and the postembedding gold-labelled procedure for electron microscopy (EM) were employed. Of all mAbs used for the study, only mAbs generated against amyloid B-protein bound to neural tissue were affected with NCL. The strongest immunostaining of neurons and of some reactive glial cells was found in brains with the juvenile form of NCL. Only in the infantile form of the disease were some neurons overloaded with storage material weakly immunoreactive. In brains of patients with the adult form of NCL, immunoreactivity was found in affected neurons and in extracellularly deposited material of senile plaques. The results of EM study showed that the immunoreactivity was restricted to lysosomal cytosomes in neural tissue with any form of NCL selectively localized on the curvilinear and fingerprint proteinaceous component of ceroid lipofuscin. Studies performed on control aging brains and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains confirmed previous observations of immunoreactivity being found diffusely in the protein component of some neurons containing lipopigment. The defective processing of APP in brains with NCL and AD and in ageing brains is discussed. Our present results support the notion of heterogeneity of ceroid lipofuscin storage material in various forms of NCL and underline the hypothesis that abnormalities found in the protease inhibitors or APP in the proteinaceous composition of storage lipopigment could be a key to the unknown etiology of NCL.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Amyloid β protein ; Skin biopsy Alzheimer's disease ; Down's syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A total of 66 skin biopsies from persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Down's syndrome (DS) and from persons without AD were used in this study. The age range was from 7 to 89 years. Positive immunoreactivity of skin biopsies to monoclonal antibody 4G8, which is reactive to amino acid residue 17–24 of synthetic amyloid β protein (Aβ), and 4G8-Fab (the antigen-binding fragment of 4G8 IgG, reactive only to amyloid plaque) was observed in the epidermis-dermis junction or the basement membrane of the epidermis and in some blood vessels of the biopsy skins of 13/18 (72%) AD, 9/10 (90%) DS, and 14/38 (37%) non-AD control cases. The Fisher exact probability test revealed a significant difference (P=0.0415 one-tailed) in immunoreactivity between AD and age-matched controls. There was also a significant difference (P=0.0152 one-tailed; P=0.0200 two-tailed) between DS and age-matched control in the same test. Immuno-gold electron microscopy examination of these cases with positive immunoreactivity revealed that the gold particles were deposited along the basement membrane of the epidermis. Amyloid fibrils were not observed in the regions with gold particles. Results of this study suggest that Aβ is associated with the basement membrane of skin and is present in amorphous, non-fibrillar form as soluble Aβ.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Amyloid β protein ; Skin biopsy ; Alzheimer's disease ; Down's syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A total of 66 skin biopsies from persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Down's syndrome (DS) and from persons without AD were used in this study. The age range was from 7 to 89 years. Positive immunoreactivity of skin biopsies to monoclonal antibody 4G8, which is reactive to amino acid residue 17 – 24 of synthetic amyloid β protein (Aβ), and 4G8-Fab (the antigen-binding fragment of 4G8 IgG, reactive only to amyloid plaque) was observed in the epidermis-dermis junction or the basement membrane of the epidermis and in some blood vessels of the biopsy skins of 13/18 (72  %) AD, 9/10 (90  %) DS, and 14/38 (37  %) non-AD control cases. The Fisher exact probability test revealed a significant difference (P=0.0415 one-tailed) in immunoreactivity between AD and age-matched controls. There was also a significant difference (P=0.0152 one-tailed; P=0.0200 two-tailed) between DS and age-matched control in the same test. Immuno-gold electron microscopy examination of these cases with positive immunoreactivity revealed that the gold particles were deposited along the basement membrane of the epidermis. Amyloid fibrils were not observed in the regions with gold particles. Results of this study suggest that Aβ is associated with the basement membrane of skin and is present in amorphous, non-fibrillar form as soluble Aβ.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] VEGF has several attractive features as a mediator of normal and pathological angiogenesisis. VEGF is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenesis inducer in vivo6'9. Its high-affinity binding sites are localized only on endothelial cells in tissue sections10. VEGF was also purified ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Asteraceae ; Lactuceae ; Microseridinae ; Krigia ; Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ; ITS region (ITS 1, 5.8 S rDNA, and ITS 2) ; intergenic spacer (IGS) region ; nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) ; chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) ; sequence divergence ; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ; maximum parsimony (MP) tree ; neighbor joining (NJ) tree
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the 18 S–25 S nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat was sequenced from 19 populations of the tribeLactuceae, including all species of dwarf dandelion (Krigia) and five outgroup genera. The incidence of length changes and base substitutions was at least two times higher for ITS 1 than ITS 2. Interspecific sequence divergence withinKrigia averaged 9.62% (1.61%–15.19%) and 4.26% (0%–6.64%) in ITS 1 and ITS 2, respectively. Intergeneric sequence divergence ranged from 15.6% to 44.5% in ITS 1 and from 8.0% to 28.6% in ITS 2. High sequence divergence and homoplasy among genera of tribeLactuceae suggest that the phylogenetic utility of ITS sequence data is limited to interspecific studies or comparisons among closely related genera. Trees generated from ITS sequences are essentially identical to those from restriction site comparisons of the entire nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA region. The degree of tree resolution differed depending on how gaps were treated in phylogenetic analyses. The ITS trees were congruent with the chloroplast DNA and morphological phylogenies in three major ways: 1) the sister group relationship betweenKrigia andPyrrhopappus; 2) the recognition of two monophyletic sections,Krigia andCymbia, in genusKrigia; and 3) the monophyly of theK. occidentalis-K. cespitosa clade in sect.Cymbia. However, the two nrDNA-based trees are not congruent with morphology/chloroplast DNA-based trees for the interspecific relationships in sect.Krigia. An average of 22.5% incongruence was observed among fourKrigia data sets. The relatively high degree of incongruence among data sets is due primarily to conflict between trees based on nrDNA and morphological/cpDNA data. The incongruence is probably due to the concerted evolution of nrDNA repeating units. The results fromKrigia and theLactuceae suggest that nrDNA data may have limited utility in phylogenetic studies of plants, especially in groups which exhibit high levels of sequence divergence. Our combined phylogenetic analysis as a total evidence shows the least conflict to each of the individual data sets.
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