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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 16 (1994), S. 211-216 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rifamycin is a clinically useful macrolide antibiotic produced by the gram positive bacterium. Amycolatopsis mediterranei. This antibiotic is primarily used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. In these bacteria, rifamycin treatment specifically inhibits the initiation of RNA synthesis by binding to β-subunit of RNA polymerase. Apart from its activity against the bacteria, rifamycin has also been reported to inhibit reverse transcriptase (RT) of certain RNA viruses. Recently, rifamycin derivatives have been dis-covered that are effective against Mycobacterium avium, which is associated with the AIDS complex. Consequently, the importance of and demand for rifamycin has increased tremendously, the world over. In this article, recent trends in rifamycin research and accessability of recombinant DNA techniques to increase rifamycin production are reviewed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Six Certified Reference Materials of toxic elements in the concentration range of 1–2 ppm have been prepared in aqueous or HNO3 solution with the participation of fourteen laboratories in India. Various factors affecting the stability of such solutions (hydrolysis, leaching from containers, adsorption, temperature etc.) have been studied and the analytical data for these reference materials have been compiled and certified values have been assigned to them.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Для заглавного процесса исследовали влияние состава катализатора и реакционных параметров на выход пири дин-2-карбоксиальдегида. Найдено, что монослой окиси ванадия на TiO2 (анатаза) представляет собой высоко селективный катализатор для парциального окисления 2-метилпиридина до пиридин-2-карбоксиальдегида.
    Notes: Abstract The influence of catalyst composition and reaction parameters on the yield of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde has been studied for the title process. It has been established that monolayer vanadia on TiO2 (anatase) is a highly selective catalyst for the partial oxidaton of 2-methylpyridine to pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Highly sensitive coculture methods were developed both for isolation of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1 and HTLV-II) from infected individuals and for productive infection of lymphoid cells. Mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 13 HTLV-I- and 20 HTLV-II-positive specimens were cocultured with an equal number of mitogen-activated PBMC from HTLV-seronegative individuals, and culture supernatants were tested for the presence of soluble p24gag antigens at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Eleven of 13 (85%) HTLV-I and 14 of 20 (70%) HTLV-II cultures were positive for p24 antigens. None of the 17 HTLV-seroindeterminate or six HTLV-seronegative specimens were positive for the presence of p24 antigen. The isolation rates for HTLV-I and HTLV-II by an alternative whole-blood lysis procedure were comparable to those obtained by standard PBMC cultures. Furthermore, cocultivation of PHA-stimulated PBMC from healthy donors with lethally irradiated HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected cell lines (SP and Mo-T, respectively) resulted in productive viral infection, as reflected by the appearance of p24gag antigens concomitant with specific genomic amplification of HTLV proviral DNA after 3 weeks of cocultivation. Thus, the cocultivation technique provides a highly sensitive and specific procedure both for HTLV isolation and for infection of target cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: anaerobic stress ; enolase ; gene regulation ; maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A cDNA encoding maize enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase) was purified by functional genetic complementation using an enolase deficient mutant of Escherichia coli, DF261. This cDNA, pZM245, was characterized by restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis. The cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 446 amino acids with a high degree of similarity to enolase sequences from other organisms (72% identity to yeast enolase and 82% identity to human enolase). The pZM245 contains a correctly positioned consensus prokaryotic translation initiation sequence. The specific activity of enolase in maize increases to about twice its initial level after 48 hours of anaerobiosis. Northern-blot analysis showed a five-fold anaerobic induction in enolase mRNA, while heat shock or cold shock increased enolase mRNA levels only slightly. Southern-blot analysis of maize genomic DNA indicated that there is one copy of the pZM245 hybridizing sequence per haploid genome in maize.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: anaerobic genes ; maize ; pyruvate decarboxylase ; DNA sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: Lymphatic filariasis ; c-reactive protein ; phosphocholine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay in patients infected with the filarial parasiteWuchereria bancrofti. Significantly elevated levels of CRP (P〈0.001) were demonstrated in patients with chronic lymphatic pathology (CP;n=18) compared to patients with asymptomatic microfilaremia (MF;n=13) and normal volunteers (NV;n=29). Serum levels of CRP showed an inverse correlation (r s=−0.37;P〈0.05) with phosphocholine (PC)-containing filarial antigen that was present in the circulation of patients with bancroftian filariasis. Marked elevations in the percentage of CRP-binding lymphocytes were observed in patients with CP (mean=44%;P〈0.001) compared to those with MF (mean=18%) or NV (mean=3%). The increased percentage of surface CRP was not due to an abnormal change in major lymphocyte subset (CD5, CD4, CD8, or CD19). No significant correlation was noted between surface CRP and serum CRP; however, an inverse correlation was observed between surface CRP and PC-bearing circulating filarial Ag (r s=−0.64;P〈0.001). Biosynthetic labeling and immunoprecipitation with anti-CRP antibodies indicated quantitative differences in the synthesis of CRP in patients with CP compared to MF and CP. Complexing of CRP with PC-containingBrugia malayi antigen (CRP-BmA) caused increased binding to normal lymphocytes (〈8%), but not close to the extent seen in patients with CP (44%), suggesting de novo synthesis of CRP in these patients. Thus, the CRP-binding lymphocytes may represent a marker of immunologically committed cells in chronic lymphatic obstruction and may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: Human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) ; spontaneous proliferation ; integrin molecules
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation in the absence of exogenous stimulators was examined in asymptomatic HTLV-II-seropositive (n=12) and seronegative individuals (n=16). Mean spontaneous lymphocytic proliferation significantly increased on day 8 postculture in HTLV-II-infected individuals (5762±899 cpm) compared with normal controls (2034±925 cpm,P〈0.01). The proliferating cells in infected individuals were predominantly T cells; neither B cells nor monocytes demonstrated any proliferation. Phenotypic analysis of cultured cells from individuals with HTLV-II infection demonstrated differential expression of integrin molecules as defined by anti-CD29 and anti-S6F1 (42.8±4.2 and 39.6±5.9%, respectively) on CD8 cells, as compared with day 0 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected individuals (19.7±3.5 and 19.9±1.9%, respectively) or normal controls (12.9±3.1 and 11.5±2.5%, respectively;P〈0.001 for both comparisons). These CD8+ cells did not express CD16 or CD11b. The culture supernatants derived from the spontaneously proliferating cells had significantly increased levels of sCD8 and sCD25 (765±180 and 1805±320 U/ml, respectively) compared with those from normal controls (222±120 and 305±90 U/ml, respectively;P〈0.01). Furthermore, culture supernatants derived from spontaneously proliferating PBMC from HTLV-II-infected individuals had no detectable levels of HTLV antigen and did not stimulate proliferation of PBMC from normal donors. These results suggest that the spontaneous proliferation in HTLV-II asymptomatic carriers is due to expansion of CD8 cells expressing integrin receptors which may serve as costimulatory molecules for their activation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1436-2813
    Keywords: Wilms' tumor ; nephroblastoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 48 year old male presented with a one and a half year history of a progressively increasing, asymptomatic lump in the left hypochondrium and no history of hematuria. His general physical examination was unremarkable, and an abdominal examination revealed a large, firm, irregular and tender mass in the left hypochondrium extending into the lumbar region. Chest X-ray was normal. An intravenous urogram revealed a normally functioning right kidney with non-visualization of the left kidney. CT-scan of the abdomen revealed a large, mixed attenuating mass replacing the left kidney. At laparotomy, a large, fleshy, well-encapsulated tumor was found in the left kidney with no surrounding infiltration and a left radical nephrectomy was performed. Microscopic examination revealed a poorly differentiated tumor comprised of small round cells with focal areas of abortive embryonal tubular and glomerular differentiation suggestive of Wilms' tumor. The patient was advised chemotherapy and radiotherapy but he absconded and was lost to follow-up.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: endangered plant ; shoot-tip explants ; liquid medium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Micropropagation of an endangered Indian medicinal plant, Rheum emodi Wall., was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's medium using different liquid culture procedures. Liquid static (submerged, semi-submerged and with filter paper bridge) and shake (80 and 120 rpm) culture procedures were assessed for their effects on growth and multiplication rates. Best results were obtained using liquid shake cultures, which resulted in 50% reduction in medium requirement, 37.5% reduction in time and 1.5–2.2 fold increase in growth and multiplication rate. Liquid culture-raised plantlets facilitated easy transplantation and 90–95% survived transfer to potting mix in glasshouse.
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