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  • 1990-1994  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary DNA libraries from sorted human gonosomes were used selectively to stain the X and Y chromosomes in normal and aberrant cultured human cells by chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS-) hybridization. The entire X chromosome was stained in metaphase spreads. Interphase chromosome domains of both the active and inactive X were clearly delineated. CISS-hybridization of the Y chromosome resulted in the specific decoration of the euchromatic part (Ypter-q11), whereas the heterochromatic part (Yq12) remained unlabeled. The stained part of the Y chromosome formed a compact domain in interphase nuclei. This approach was applied to amniotic fluid cells containing a ring chromosome of unknown origin (47,XY; +r). The ring chromosome was not stained by library probes from the gonosomes, thereby suggesting its autosomal origin. The sensitivity of CISS-hybridization was demonstrated by the detection of small translocations and fragments in human lymphocyte metaphase spreads after irradiation with 60Co-gamma-rays. Lymphocyte cultures from two XX-males were investigated by CISS-hybridization with Y-library probes. In both cases, metaphase spreads demonstrated a translocation of Yp-material to the short arm of an X chromosome. The translocated Y-material could also be demonstrated directly in interphase nuclei. CISS-hybridization of autosomes 7 and 13 was used for prenatal diagnosis in a case with a known balanced translocation t(7;13) in the father. The same translocation was observed in amniotic fluid cells from the fetus. Specific staining of the chromosomes involved in such translocations will be particularly important, in the future, in cases that cannot be solved reliably by conventional chromosome banding alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 345 (1990), S. 93-94 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN SITU hybridization techniques have been used widely to visualize specific DNA or RNA sequences in preparations of chromosomes, single cells or tissue sections. Initially, the nucleic acid probes were labelled isotopically and detected posthybridization by autoradiography. Over the past few ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: Chromosome domains ; nuclear organization ; nuclear transcripts ; snRNP distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The nuclear topography of splicing snRNPs, mRNA transcripts and chromosome domains in various mammalian cell types are described. The visualization of splicing snRNPs, defined by the Sm antigen, and coiled bodies, revealed distinctly different distribution patterns in these cell types. Heat shock experiments confirmed that the distribution patterns also depend on physiological parameters. Using a combination of fluorescencein situ hybridization and immunodetection protocols, individual chromosome domains were visualized simultaneously with the Sm antigen or the transcript of an integrated human papilloma virus genome. Three-dimensional analysis of fluorescence-stained target regions was performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RNA transcripts and components of the splicing machinery were found to be generally excluded from the interior of the territories occupied by the individual chromosomes. Based on these findings we present a model for the functional compartmentalization of the cell nucleus. According to this model the space between chromosome domains, including the surface areas of these domains, defines a three-dimensional network-like compartment, termed the interchromosome domain (ICD) compartment, in which transcription and splicing of mRNA occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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