Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
islet cell autoantibody
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary The prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies was determined with an immunotrapping enzyme activity assay in newly-diagnosed Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients as well as in first-degree relatives using rat brain homogenate as a source of glutamate decarboxylase. Twenty-six out of 86 islet-cell cytoplasmic autoantibody positive and one out of 24 islet cell autoantibody negative patients of recent onset, had autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase above the upper 99% confidence limit obtained from 89 control sera. Among 27 islet cell autoantibody positive relatives including 19 siblings and 8 parents, antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were found in 8 of 9 (89%) relatives and 7 of 8 (87.5%) siblings with islet cell autoantibody titres above 20 JDF units, in 1 of 19 (5.2%) relatives with islet cell autoantibody titres between 2 and 5 JDF units, in 2 of 263 (0.7%) siblings and 1 of 139 parents without islet cell autoantibodies. In first-degree relatives, high titre islet cell autoantibodies and autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were tightly associated (X2=182, p=0.0001). None of the relatives with low genetic risk (n=64), i.e. HLA-different to the diabetic proband, was found to be antibody positive. Antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were present only in those relatives sharing at least one haplotype with the diabetic proband, including two islet cell autoantibody negative but HLA-identical siblings. Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were present in 7 of 9 (77%) relatives who developed the disease, including one islet cell autoantibody negative sibling. Altogether, the simultaneous presence of autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase and high titre islet cell autoantibody increases the positive predictive value for the disease from 66% to 75%. This study indicates therefore that autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase detected by an immunotrapping enzyme activity assay are additional predictive markers for future development of Type 1 diabetes and should be now prospectively studied in high risk individuals as well as other autoantibodies to Beta-cell autoantigens.
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