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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Subsurface bacteria were used to study the kinetics of chromate uptake and the internal distribution of the chromium that is taken up by these cells using two equilibration periods (1 and 50 days). Cells that were exposed to chromate for 50 days (to simulate in-situ conditions) were able to sequester up to 200% more chromium per unit mass of cells than were cells that were exposed for only 1 day. Chromium distributions showed an increase in chromium sorption by the cell wall, by the membrane and ribosome, and by the soluble fraction after a 50-day equilibration period compared to after 1 day of equilibration. Killed cell controls suggest that active transport of chromate is the method of intracellular accumulation during the 50-day equilibration period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Subsurface bacteria were used to study the kinetics of chromate uptake and the internal distribution of the chromium that is taken up by these cells using two equilibration periods (1 and 50 days). Cells that were exposed to chromate for 50 days (to simulate in-situ conditions) were able to sequester up to 200% more chromium per unit mass of cells than were cells that were exposed for only 1 day. Chromium distributions showed an increase in chromium sorption by the cell wall, by the membrane and ribosome, and by the soluble fraction after a 50-day equilibration period compared to after 1 day of equilibration. Killed cell controls suggest that active transport of chromate is the method of intracellular accumulation during the 50-day equilibration period.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 33.35 ; 33.60 ; 35,20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Infrared-infrared double-resonance spectroscopy has been carried out for CD3OH. Seven of the observed double resonance signals occur in the congested Q-branch region of the C-O stretch band while one is a transition to an excited torsional state. The signals appear as single signals as opposed to the more regular appearance as pairs. Three of the observed transitions involve excited-state levels which are shifted by Fermi resonance between excited C-O stretch-state levels and levels of high-lying torsional modes of the vibrational ground state. These resonances result in a considerable change in the Stark shift for the excited-state levels compared with unperturbed levels. The a-component μ″ a of the permanent electric-dipole moment value has been determined for several ground-state levels. The average value in the ground state is calculated to be μ″ a =0.918D. The results have allowed the assignment of several previously reported far-infrared laser lines and also confirmed assignments proposed by other workers.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0797
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract An off-line glucose analyzer, Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) model 27 was modified and coupled to various peripheral components to produce a fast, fully automated system for the online determination of glucose concentration. The amount of time required to accomplish each measurement was in the order of two minutes. To demonstrate the utility of this system, various tests were performed. First, a stream containing known amounts of glucose was monitored on-line and the system was calibrated. The calibration curve was shown to be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Once the system was properly calibrated, it was used to monitor the glucose concentration in the effluent stream of two different enzyme reactor systems. The glucose concentrations were within experimental error of those obtained via standard off-line techniques.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glutamate decarboxylase ; Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; islet cell autoantibody ; prediction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies was determined with an immunotrapping enzyme activity assay in newly-diagnosed Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients as well as in first-degree relatives using rat brain homogenate as a source of glutamate decarboxylase. Twenty-six out of 86 islet-cell cytoplasmic autoantibody positive and one out of 24 islet cell autoantibody negative patients of recent onset, had autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase above the upper 99% confidence limit obtained from 89 control sera. Among 27 islet cell autoantibody positive relatives including 19 siblings and 8 parents, antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were found in 8 of 9 (89%) relatives and 7 of 8 (87.5%) siblings with islet cell autoantibody titres above 20 JDF units, in 1 of 19 (5.2%) relatives with islet cell autoantibody titres between 2 and 5 JDF units, in 2 of 263 (0.7%) siblings and 1 of 139 parents without islet cell autoantibodies. In first-degree relatives, high titre islet cell autoantibodies and autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were tightly associated (X2=182, p=0.0001). None of the relatives with low genetic risk (n=64), i.e. HLA-different to the diabetic proband, was found to be antibody positive. Antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were present only in those relatives sharing at least one haplotype with the diabetic proband, including two islet cell autoantibody negative but HLA-identical siblings. Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase were present in 7 of 9 (77%) relatives who developed the disease, including one islet cell autoantibody negative sibling. Altogether, the simultaneous presence of autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase and high titre islet cell autoantibody increases the positive predictive value for the disease from 66% to 75%. This study indicates therefore that autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase detected by an immunotrapping enzyme activity assay are additional predictive markers for future development of Type 1 diabetes and should be now prospectively studied in high risk individuals as well as other autoantibodies to Beta-cell autoantigens.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Thin films of the organic molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (“PTCDA”) on graphite (0001) have been investigated from the mono- to the multilayer regime with low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray-diffraction in Bragg-Brentano geometry, and high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These different methods proved epitaxial growth in a coincident superstructure and yielded congruent results concerning details of the crystallographic structure of the epilayer. In addition it was possible to resolve submolecular structures in high resolution STM images; a comparison of the 10 resolved maxima of the tunneling current with the molecular structure leads us to question the conventional model description of tunneling.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: 61.16 Di ; 68.55 Bd
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Monolayers of the organic molecules perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-carboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) and diimide (PTCDI) on graphite and MoS2 have been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy. The epitaxial growth of the two molecules is determined by the intermolecular interaction but nearly independent of the substrate. On both substrates the STM image contrast in the submolecularly resolved images is dominated by the aromatic perylene system whereas the polar oxygen and nitrogen groups are invisible. The correlation of the observed inner structure of the molecules to their molecular structure allows us to compare our results with theoretical considerations.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 46 (1990), S. 1105-1107 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 46 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Various biological assays are used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in supernatants from cell cultures. The purpose of the present study was to compare the specificity and variability of three cellular IL-1 bioassays: the PHA co-stimulatory human T lymphocyte proliferation assay, the PHA co-stimulatory murine thymocyte (THY) proliferation assay, and the 2-step NOB-1 conversion assay. Three different ways of IL-1 unit calculation, based on a semi-logarithmic plot, a double-logarithmic plot, or a probit-analysis plot were also compared. The T lymphocyte assay can be used only to demonstrate qualitative differences in IL-1-like activity, whereas the THY assay is excellent as a semi-quantitative assay, with a low intra-assay variability, but also with a low specificity. The NOB-1 assay is probably more specific with respect to IL-1 measurement, although, with a high intra-assay variance. The THY and the NOB-1 assays both have a high inter-assay variability, and measurement of samples from longitudinal clinical studies must be done in one and the same analysis if quantitative differences are to be illustrated, Probit analysis for unit calculation is recommended. To generate a consensus view as to assay performance, collaborative laboratory studies are needed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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