Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A quantitative immunohistochemical study was performed of the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP, a soluble protein localized in neurons and neuroendocrine cells as well as in some non-nervous cells) and ubiquitin along the rat epididymis. In the ductuli efferentes, PGP immunoreaction was observed in the whole cytoplasm of some columnar cells; a smaller number of columnar cells showed ubiquitin immunoreactivity with limited apical and basal cytoplasmic localization. In the proximal caput epididymidis, the whole cytoplasm of all columnar cells showed PGP immunoreactivity, ubiquitin immunostaining was negative in this region. In the middle and distal caput epididymidis and the distal cauda, the apical cytoplasm of some columnar cells and the whole cytoplasm of some basal cells showed immunoreactivity to PGP. In these regions, immunoreactivity to ubiquitin was positive in the supranuclear cytoplasm of some columnar cells but not in the basal cells. No immunoreactivity to PGP or ubiquitin was detected in the corpus epididymis and the proximal cauda. Double immunostaining revealed that all the epididymal ubiquitin immunoreactive cells were also PGP immunoreactive, whereas most PGP immunoreactive cells did not immunoreact to ubiquitin. In ubiquitin-PGP immunoreactive cells, the site of the PGP immunoreaction differed from that of the ubiquitin immunoreaction. PGP-ubiquitin immunoreactive cells also seemed to be immunoreactive to anti-AE1/AE3 keratin antibodies. The spermatozoal heads were immunoreactive to PGP antibodies in the epididymal regions from proximal caput to distal cauda but not in the ductuli efferentes. The findings suggest that non-ubiquitinated PGP immunoreactive proteins are secreted in the epididymis, mainly in the proximal caput, and attach to spermatozoa.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The peptidergic innervation of human dental pulp was studied with indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. Pulpal nerve fibres displaying immunoreactivity for cholecystokinin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, C-terminal flanking peptide of neuropeptide tyrosine, leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide tyrosine, peptide with N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine, somatostatin-28, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were observed. Immunoreactive axon varicosities were detectable within radicular and coronal nerve trunks and within the nerve plexus of Raschkow in the para-odontoblastic region. Many peptidergic nerve fibres were observed in association with blood vessels of various sizes. Substance P- and calcitonin-gene-related peptide-immunoreactive axons were visible in the odontoblastic layer. The occurrence of VIP- and PHI-immunoreactive fibres lends support to the hypothesis that human tooth may be supplied by parasympathetic nerves. The immunocytochemical results here shown provide a morphological basis to previous experimental studies concerning the possible roles of neuropeptides in nociception mechanisms, control of the blood flow and modulation of the inflammatory response in dental tissues.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from l-arginine by NO synthases. Localization of the brain enzyme has been carried out in the rat; however, despite data suggesting that NO is a major regulator of vascular and neural functions in man, there is no information about the localization of NO synthase in human tissues. Rabbit antisera to NO synthase purified from rat brain (antisera A and B) were raised, tested by Western blotting, affinity purification and enzyme immunoprecipitation assay, and used to investigate the distribution of the enzyme in a variety of human tissues by immunohistochemistry. Antisera to two synthetic peptides from cloned neural NO synthase were used to aid specificity testing. Antisera A and B reacted with a ∼ 160-kDa protein in Western blots of human brain extracts, gave immunostaining of nerves, and precipitated enzyme activity from rat brain homogenates. Antiserum B to NO synthase also reacted with proteins of Mr between 125 and 140 kDa in extracts of well-vascularised tissues, and immunostained vascular endothelium; the neural and vascular immunoreactivity persisted after affinity purification of antiserum B with the ∼ 160 kDa protein. Endothelial staining with antiserum B was seen in respiratory tract, liver, skin and umbilicus; syncytial trophoblasts stained in the placenta. Neural staining with antiserum A and B was seen in the myenteric and submucous plexus, and in nerve fibres in smooth muscle of the gut and in many areas of the central nervous system, particularly cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Therefore, antibodies to rat brain enzyme react with the human equivalent and also with other NO synthase isoforms in human endothelium. These findings support the contention that the endothelial enzyme is a different form with partial homology to that in nerves and also provide an anatomical distribution of NO synthase isoforms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have previously shown depletion of nerves and neuropeptides in skin biopsies of diabetic patients, even in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms of sensory and autonomic neuropathy, but were unable to examine the changes occurring at an early stage of the disease. Therefore, the distribution and relative density of peptide-containing nerves was studied in streptozotocin-treated rats in order to assess the progression of neural changes in the initial stages of diabetes. Skin samples dissected from the lip and footpad of diabetic rats, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after streptozotocin injection and age matched controls were sectioned and were immunostained with antisera to the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and to a general neural marker, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). No change was apparent in the distribution or relative density of immunoreactive cutaneous nerve fibres 2, 4 and 8 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. By 12 weeks there was a marked increase in the number of CGRP-immunoreactive fibres present in epidermis and dermis, and of VIP-immunoreactive fibres around sweat glands and blood vessels. A parallel increase was seen in nerves displaying PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity. No differences were detected in nerves immunoreactive for either substance P in the epidermis and dermis, and NPY around blood vessels. The alterations in the peptide immunoreactivities may be similar in the initial stages of human diabetes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with 35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ; Substance P ; Diabetic BB rat ; Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) ; Spinal cord
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study examined the experession of the sensory neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), in the lumbar 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of spontaneously diabetic BB rats and non-diabetic controls using quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. In both animal groups immunoreactivities for CGRP and SP were widely distributed within the neurons of DRG and in nerve fibres of the dorsal spinal cord. Image analysis of each neuropeptide subpopulation in the DRG showed that in diabetic rats the cell diameter of immunostained CGRP neurons was significantly decreased compared with controls, while no difference could be found for SP-immunoreactive (IR) neurons. The decrease in the CGRP-IR cell diameter appeared to occur mainly in medium to large neurons (30–50 μm diameter; 2.2% controls, 〈1% diabetes), this change being parallel to an increased frequency of small-size neurons (〈20 μm diameter) in diabetic rats (62% controls, 69% diabetes;P〈0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the total number of cells immunostained for either CGRP or SP between control and diabetic rats. The ratio of CGRP or SP neurons compared to total cells in the ganglion was similar in control and diabetic groups. No difference could be observed for peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal and ventral horns of either control or diabetic animals. The observed changes of perikaryal size in diabetic rats might relate to the reduced axonal calibre and conduction velocity observed in these animals, and indicate that subpopulations of sensory neurons are affected differently by diabetes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy ; small-fibre studies ; neuropeptides ; immunohistochemistry ; neurophysiology ; sudomotor function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Image-analysis was used to measure nerves immunoreactive to the general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5-IR) and the neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in standardised leg skin biopsies of three age-matched groups of young subjects: non-diabetic (n=14), diabetic patients with normal small fibre function (“non-neuropathic”, (n=11) and diabetic patients with abnormal small fibre function (“neuropathic”, n=11). Depletion of nerves and neuropeptides was most marked in the epidermis, where calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactivity was more frequently absent than PGP 9.5-IR in diabetic patients. Epidermal PGP 9.5-IR nerve area and counts were reduced in neuropathic compared with normal subjects (p〈0.001), as were epidermal calcitonin gene-related peptide nerve counts (p=0.003). Sweat gland PGP 9.5 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, which may be involved in sweat production, showed no diminution in diabetic patients (area: p=0.160, p=0.372 by ANOVA). Two diabetic patients showed elevated sweat gland PGP 9.5-IR and three had increased sweat gland vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; this may represent nerve proliferation. In local sweat tests, acetylcholine-stimulated sweat output was associated with increased immunoreactivity, while the sympathetic skin response showed inverse correlations with immunoreactivity. There were no consistent changes with other commonly-used neurophysiological tests. HbA1 correlated negatively with immunohistochemical measurements. Neuropeptide changes were seen in the absence of macro- and microvascular disease, and epidermal nerve depletion occurred in patients with normal thermal thresholds and cardiac autonomic function. Immunohistochemical measurement of cutaneous nerves in skin biopsies is a practical method for assessing peripheral small fibres in diabetes, and one which could be repeated in longitudinal studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P and somatostatin were studied in skin biopsies from patients with eczema, psoriasis and axillary hyperhidrosis. VIP concentrations were elevated in skin affected by eczema and psoriasis, whereas substance P and somatostatin levels did not differ from controls. There was a higher concentration of VIP, but not of substance P or somatostatin, in normal axillary skin when compared to adjacent trunk skin, with abundant VIP-containing fibres surrounding eccrine sweat glands. The VIP concentration was unchanged in skin affected by axillary hyperhidrosis. VIP may increase local blood flow in eczema and psoriasis, but does not appear to play a role in axillary hyperhidrosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Islet amyloid polypeptide ; deposits ; fibrils ; in situ hybridization ; expression ; immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Islet amyloid polypeptide which is normally coexpressed with insulin in beta cells, forms amyloid deposits especially in islets of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. Occurrence of islet amyloid is paradoxically associated with loss of islet amyloid polypeptide immunoreactivity in beta cells. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the islet amyloid polypeptide gene is expressed in islets with decreased islet amyloid polypeptide immunoreactivity. Pancreatic tissue from 14 patients, 7 with Type 2 diabetes and 7 non-diabetic, were obtained at autopsy or surgery and studied for islet amyloid polypeptide expression by in situ hybridization and for presence of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide by immunohistochemistry. Six of the specimens from the diabetic and three of those from the non-diabetic patients had varying degrees of islet amyloid polypeptide-derived islet amyloid. Amyloid deposits were associated with decreased numbers of beta cells with islet amyloid polypeptide immunoreactivity despite an apparent normal frequency of insulin-containing cells. This discrepancy might reflect an alteration in islet amyloid polypeptide production or processing at a transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. In contrast to the varying immunohistochemical patterns, islets of all categories showed strong labelling using an islet amyloid polypeptide probe for in situ hybridization. It is concluded that islet amyloid polypeptide production is not altered at the transcriptional level. The following possibilities remain: (1) islet amyloid polypeptide production may be altered at a post-transcriptional level or (2) that islet amyloid polypeptide production is normal but the reduced immunoreactivity of the cells reflects a reduced storage of IAPP in secretory granules. We favour the second possibility since islet amyloid deposition is incompatible with reduced islet amyloid polypeptide synthesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...