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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Repeated DNA ; Restriction satellite ; RFLP ; Solanaceae ; Species-specificity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Highly repeated DNA of potato (Solanum sp.) was characterized by cloning various major repeated elements of the nuclear genome. The percentage of the nuclear genome of the specific fractions and the restriction enzyme patterns were determined in order to show the distribution and organization of the respective repeats in the genome of Solanum tuberosum cultivars, dihaploid breeding lines and in wild species of Solanum. Several of the clones obtained were represented in a high copy number but showed no informative RFLP patterns. More information was gained from ‘restriction satellite’ repeats. The clone pR1T320 was found to contain satellite repeats (360 bp in length) that are proportionally present in the genome of all Solanum species at frequencies, between 0.5% and 2.6% and which are differently organized. This repeat was also found in the genera Lycopersicon, Datura and Nicotiana. With various restriction enzymes characteristic RFLP patterns were detected. A more or less genus-specific element for Solanum was the 183-bp repeat (clone pSA287; between 0.2–0.4% of the nuclear genome) that was present in the majority of the Solanum species analyzed except S. kurtzianum, S. bulbocastanum and S. pinnatisectum. In a few wild species (prominently in S. kurtzianum, S. demissum and S. acaule) a specific repeat type was detected (clone pSDT382; repeat length approximately 370 bp) that could be used to trace the wild species introduced into S. tuberosum cultivars. The repeats analyzed together with the 18S, 5.8S and 25S ribosomal DNA (1.9–5.2%, corresponding to 1800-5500 rDNA copies) comprised approximately 4–7% of the Solanum genome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia BCR-ABL rearrangment ; Minimal residual diasease Polymerase chain reaction ; Autologous BMT
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Residual leukemic cells are detectable at frequencies as low as 1 in 106 normal cells in patients with Philadelphia chromosome/BCR-ABL-positive leukemias in complete remission (CR) using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific nested primers. The level of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) may favor one of the two as the source for an autologous graft. In order to quantify MRD with RT-PCR we analyzed patients ficolled cells after limiting logarithmic dilutions in normal ficolled buffy-coat cells. In six patients with BCR-ABL-pos ALL who were in CR by conventional criteria (5 in CR1 and 1 in CR2), we studied a total of nine paired BM and PB samples prior to scheduled ABMT. A positive RT-PCR signals was detectable in all samples up to dilutions ranging from 1∶101 to 1∶103 in PB, and at higher titers ranging from 1∶103 to 1∶105 in the BM. The BM titers exceeded the corresponding PB titers in all nine sample pairs by at least 1 log. The mean difference was 1.55 log (geometric mean,n=9) and is statistically significant (p〈0.03). We conclude that residual leukemia in BCR-ABL-positive ALL preferentially locates in the BM compartment, and we assume that PB may yield autologous grafts with significantly less leukemic contamination.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Livor mortis ; Blanching ; Colorimetry ; Measurement of pressure ; Estimation of time of death ; Totenflecke, Wegdrückbarkeit ; Totenflecke, Farbmessung ; Totenflecke, Druckmessung ; Todeszeitschätzung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bislang wurde die „Wegdrückbarkeit” der Totenflecken bei der Todeszeitschätzung im wesentlichen nach subjektiven Eindrücken beurteilt-danach, ob die Totenflecke leicht, vollständig, schwer und/oder unvollständig wegdrückbar sind. Ein neues Meßsystem objektiviert die Beziehungen zwischen Kraftaufwand und Farbänderung der livores („Wegdrückbarkeit”) durch digitale Verarbeitung von Meßgrößen. Der Kraftaufwand während des Drucks auf den Totenfleck wird mittels Dehnungsmeßstreifen elektronisch erfaßt. Bei Erreichen definierter Druckstärken (10, 20, 30 bis 100 Newton) löst ein Computerprogramm jeweils eine Farbmessung mit einem handelsüblichen Farbdifferenz-Meßgerät aus. Die Farbmetrik arbeitet nach dem Dreibereichsverfahren. Alle Parameter werden ineinem Meßvorgang erfaßt und über einen Meßkonverter in einen Computer eingelesen. Die Darstellung des Farborts erfolgt im L,a b-System (CIELAB nach DIN 5033, DIN 6174), das der Physiologie des Sehens sehr nahekommt. Außerdem können Farbveränderungen über eine Farbabstandsformel (ΔE) weitgehend unabhängig vom Grundton der Haut analysiert werden. In ersten Ergebnissen von Messungen an Leichen zeigen sich regelhafte postmortale Abläufe der Farbveränderungen von Totenflekken bei zunehmender Druckstärke.
    Notes: Summary Until now, blanching of livor mortis in estimating time of death has generally been assessed based on subjective impressions, i.e. on whether blanching is visible after the application of pressure. We have developed a measuring system that uses digital processing to objectify the relationship between the pressure applied and blanching of postmortem lividity. The pressure is electronically registered by a strain gauge. At predefined levels (10, 20, 30, up to 100N) the software triggers a color measurement by a commerically available tristimulus colorimeter. All parameters are measured in a single procedure and routed to the computer through a data interface. The pressure-induced color changes in the livor mortis are evaluated according to the L*, a*, b* system (CIE-LAB according to DIN 5033, DIN 6174), which closely approximates the physiology of sight. An additional color spacing formula (AE) allows analysis of color changes irrespective of the basic skin tone. Initial measurements on cadavers showed that application of increasing pressure produced regular courses of color changes in livor mortis.
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